What is myelic disease


What is a multiple myeloma

Myeloma disease (multiple myeloma) - the most common bone tumor in adults. The average age of its appearance is 65 years, frequency increases with age. The tumor is usually manifested by numerous foci in several skeleton bones.

The basis of the tumor is plasma cells, which normally participate in an immune response, synthesizing protective antibodies (immunoglobulins) in response to any antigens entering the body. With multiple myeloma, the number of plasma cells in the bone marrow becomes excessive. These cells synthesize a large amount of specific protein, which resembles normal antibodies. This protein is determined in the blood and urine, as well as postponed in the internal organs.

How to recognize myeloma disease

What is myelic diseaseAn important difference in myeloma from leukemia is that tumor plasma cells do not go into peripheral blood. Therefore, the presence of a tumor is primarily judged by indirect signs - the detection of atypical tumor protein in the blood and urine, as well as the change in the drawing of bone tissue on the x-ray.
The main diagnostic sign of the tumor is the tumor protein, which is detected by means of electrophoresis in the blood and urine. This protein has similarities in normal immunoglobulins, but does not participate in the immune response, but is postponed in the body tissues in the form of specific masses - amyloid. Most susceptible to amyloidosis of the kidneys, heart and muscle, and the symptoms of their defeat will be gradually increasing renal, heart failure and muscle weakness.

With myeloma, X-ray research reveals multiple «Prochi» in the bones of the skull, ribs. Since the effect of the tumor is aimed at the destruction of normal bone tissue and washing the calcium and phosphorus from it, it leads to increased bone fragility.
As a result, the characteristic feature of the disease - multiple bone fractures in ordinary, household situations, with low loads. Patients complain of pain in the bones, especially in the lumbar spine. Excess calcium, washed out of bones, and pathological proteins are settled in the kidneys, leading to renal failure.

Kidney damage is a key symptom of myeloma, - and it appears both in the deposition of amyloid and the appearance of kidney stones.
On an x-ray or ultrasound of the organs of the small pellets, stones in the kidneys or bladder are found, and in the urine analysis - elevated calcium salts and myeloma protein, which for urine has its own name - Bens Jones protein, by the name of his doctor, first discovered him. The protein in the urine can appear in the form of cylinders, taking the shape of the tubules.

Another important clinical manifestation of myeloma will be repeated infections. This happens due to imperfect synthesis of immunoglobulins when the tumor of normal cells from the bone marrow is displaced.

Final confirmation of the diagnosis of the tumor gives the puncture of the bone marrow and its histological examination. This procedure allows you to see tumor cells. Typical for multiple myeloma is a picture «Eggs» In the bone marrow - an abundance of cells with a large dark core, reminiscent of the yolk of the fried egg.

Pharmacotherapy is used in the treatment of myeloma, combining 3-5 drugs, depending on the degree of tumor activity, the presence of anemia and significant bone lesions. In some cases, the bone marrow transplantation is used, as well as radiotherapy - for local treatment of bone pain syndromes.

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