Uterine cancer occupies fourth place


  • Risk factors
  • What is the uterus cancer?
  • What does the uterine cancer manifest?
  • How the uterine cancer is detected?
  • How to treat cancer?

  • Risk factors

    Hypertensive, smoking, infection with papilloma virus
    man, HIV, early start of sex life, late menopause and
    Menstrual disorders, infertility, a large number
    Sexual partners, early first birth, Venestic diseases,
    Acceptance of oral contraceptives.

    One of the meaningful risk factors is obesity:
    In women with a body weight, exceeding the norm by 10-25 kg, the risk of development
    Endometrial cancer is 3 times more than at normal body weight, and
    Women with body weight exceeding more than 25 kg Risk of disease in 9
    Once the above.

    The prejudition states are widely known,
    Playing a significant role in the occurrence of uterine cancer. This is erosion,
    Ulcers, scars after labor injury, epithelial growth (Condylomas,
    Polyps) and leukoplakia, as well as chronic inflammatory processes -
    Endocervicitis and endometritis.

    What is the uterus cancer?

    The character of the epithelium of various parts of the uterus is distinguished by flat-cell
    cervical cancer and ferrous cancer (adenocarcine) of the cervical canal and cavity
    Matties. Adenokarcinoma - the main morphological option (up to 70%).
    It should be indicated that a relatively rare tumor affecting the uterus,
    is sarcoma. Distinguish three degrees of tumor differentiation
    (highly differentiated, moderate differentiated and

    In case of cancer, the uterus distinguish 4 stages of its development:

    • Stage I - Location of the tumor in the body of the uterus,
    • Stage II - body lesion and cervical,
    • Stage II - distribution to parameter tissue or metastase in the vagina,
    • IV Stage - distribution beyond the pelvis, germination of the bladder or rectum.

    What does the uterine cancer manifest?

    Symptoms folded from complaints for blele, bleeding and pain. but
    All these three symptoms arise already during the breakdown period of the tumor, and their time
    appearance depends on the start of the ulceration. Therefore, in some cases in
    the long period of the uterus cancer may not give any symptoms.

    There are different characters: watery, mucous, painted by blood,
    odorless and silent. Blood impurity gives White view of meat peelings.
    Delayed selection in the vagina and the joining infection leads to
    The appearance of purulent white with the smell. When cancer III and IV stages of allocation
    From the genital paths. Bleeding can wear
    the character of small bloody secretions, as well as one-time or
    multiple abundant. For cervical cancer, the uterus is very typical
    called contact bleeding (during sexual intercourse, with
    Drawing, vaginal research or after lifting gravity). If
    The woman has already stopped menstruation, the appearance of bloody
    The discharge from the vagina in most cases is a sign
    malignant tumor.

    Pains are Late
    Symptom, testifying to involvement in the cancer
    lymph nodes and thaza thase to form infiltrates,
    squeezing nervous trunks and plexuses. General symptoms and, in particular,
    Cachexia (loss of body weight) occurs extremely late, in very
    launched stages, and usually women suffering from uterine cancer retain
    Externally blooming, healthy view.

    How the uterine cancer is detected?

    Uterine cancer begin with examining patient complaints and disease. In all
    Suspicious cases of cases of patients are subject to immediate
    Survey at the gynecologist. Completely unacceptable to appoint any
    Treatment of such patients without a detailed examination.

    The survey includes a vaginal two-handed study, a rectal two-handed study and inspection with mirrors.

    Uterine cancer occupies fourth place
    vaginal study in cases of a fairly pronounced tumor
    The process manages to define certain changes in the neck depending
    from the type of tumor growth (exofite, endophyte and mixed). How
    The rule, the study is accompanied by bleeding as a result
    injury tumor with finger. With widespread cancer
    Uterine additionally conduct research through the rectum for
    Clarifications of the transition of the tumor on the walls of the pelvis and sacratling binders.

    To identify the initial stages of cervical cancer
    It is impossible to be limited to the vaginal research only; necessarily
    inspection with mirrors. To identify early forms of cancer in
    all cases of certain changes on the neck of the uterus take smears for
    cytological research or biopsy. When suspected cancer
    the cervical canal or uterus is carried out diagnostic separate
    scraping of the cervical canal and the uterus and subsequent
    Histological examination.

    These studies can be carried out already in the clinic in the presence of
    Related tools and compliance with Asepta rules. For
    Illustration of the importance of a comprehensive examination is enough to indicate that
    cervical cancer remains unrecognized more than half of the patients,
    Survey of which consisted only in two-way vaginal
    Research. At the same time, when inspection using mirrors, the number of errors in
    The diagnosis decreases almost 5 times, and when using biopsy they
    observed only in isolated cases.

    Recently wide
    Distribution and great importance acquired ultrasound tomography
    (Ultrasound), allowing to identify changes in the uterus inaccessible to others
    research methods and has become a mandatory study method
    suspicion of any benign and malignant education in

    To establish the lesion of lymphatic nodes and
    metastases, which is very often accompanied by cervical cancer, resort to
    X-ray methods - lymphography and Ileocavigraphy. From the same
    The goal is carried out by the radiography of the organs of the chest, intravenous
    pyelography, irrigography, cystoscopy and rectoromanososcopy. maybe
    CT, MRI, lymphangiography, tumor biopsy tumor thin needle.

    These studies are very important in uterine cancer to generate a radiation or combination treatment plan.

    How to treat cancer?

    treatment depends on the age of the patient, general condition and clinical
    Stages of cancer. Treatment mainly surgical (extirpation of uterus with
    Applying and sometimes removal of lymph nodes pelvis). maybe
    Combined treatment - operation, and then remote irradiation on
    Vaginal cult area, intra-high gamma therapy. Conducted by I
    Preoperative radiation therapy mainly at stage III.
    Radiation therapy as an independent method is applied at the local
    distribution of the tumor process, in contraindications to the operation.
    Antitumor preparations are effective with highly differentiated
    tumors, in the III and IV stages of the disease.

    Uterine cancer occupies fourth place
    With the cervical cancer with the same success, treatment is carried out both by the method of combined radiation therapy and surgical (extended extirpation of uterus with appendages). Treatment depends on the stage of the disease. With stage Ie (microenvasive cancer), extirpation of uterus with appendages. At stage IB
    (cancer is limited to the cervical cervical) shown remote or intra-path
    exposure with subsequent extended extirpation of uterus with appendages,
    or, on the contrary, first produce operation, and then remote

    In stage II (involvement
    The top of the vagina, it is possible to transition to the body of the uterus and infiltration
    Parametering without transition to the walls of the pelvis) the main method of treatment
    is radiable, surgical intervention is rarely used. With stage III (transition to the lower part of the vagina, infiltration of the parameter with the transition to the pelvic bone) is shown radiation treatment. Finally, at the IV stage
    (transition to the bladder, rectum or remote
    Metastasation) Apply only palliative exposure. In late
    Stages are carried out symptomatic treatment, it is possible to use
    Chemotherapeutic treatment.

    After treatment
    Periodic visits to the doctor for organ examination
    Small pelvis and pick-up. Also studies include radiography
    Chest organs, ultrasound and intravenous pyelography. During
    the first year of visiting the doctor every 3 months, then for 5 years -
    every 6 months. After 5 years, control is carried out annually.

    When relapses,
    If the process is localized, conducted partial or total pelvic
    Exmentation (removal of a single block of uterus, cervix, vagina,
    Parameter, bladder and rectum). If there are remote
    Metastasis Patients usually get chemotherapy. Rauchery therapy is possible
    use for palliative treatment of painful metastases.

    Metastasis. Most
    Often the tumor give metastases into pelvic lymph nodes, less often in
    inguinal. Remote metastasis more often in the kidneys, liver, lungs, have
    Bad forecast.

    Forecast. At
    Uterine cancer 5-year survival after surgical treatment from 84 to
    45% depending on the stage of the disease. During relapses 25% of patients,
    originally undergoing surgical treatment, can be delighted
    from recurrence of the disease with the help of radiation therapy of pelvic organs. At
    Metastatic relapses of cases of cure exclusively rare, and
    Therapeutic effect of individual and short. In the IV stage of the disease
    5-year survival - up to 9%.

    Prevention. Early
    Diagnosis and prevention of uterine cancer are possible only by
    systematic preventive inspections of all women older than 30 years (not
    less often 2 times a year). Regular surveys are desirable to start with
    The beginning of sex life. Regular inspections, ultrasonic tomography and
    Cytological study (once every 2 years) contribute to identifying
    prematubological diseases, and their treatment - cancer prevention.

    Lead and correct treatment is less important
    precancerous cervical diseases. Especially characteristic signs,
    inherent only by precancerous diseases of the cervix, no, they
    proceeding as ordinary inflammatory diseases. Common for
    Prejudice diseases featured are long-term chronic
    current, constancy of symptoms, and most importantly the absence of effect from
    conservative (anti-inflammatory) treatment. Treatment of predrakov
    cervical diseases should be radical and lies in
    Electroxcision, electrocoagulation of affected areas or even
    Ampeuting cervix. Also resort to the radiation method of treatment in the form
    Application radio therapy. Among patients radically treated
    The occasion of various precancerous lesions, mortality from cervical cancer
    decreased 6 times.

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