Methods of diagnosis of the disease
In addition to the usual medical examination performedvarious diagnostic procedures. Biochemical analysis of blood and urine tests can detect a variety of toxic substances, and vitamin deficiency. When electrocardiography show signs characteristic of the disease increase the size of the heart, as well as persistent sinus tachycardia (heart rate usually exceeds 100 beats per minute.) Often, also reveal cardiac impulse conduction in the form of various blockades. X-ray examination of the chest reveals a significant increase in heart size and blood stasis in the pulmonary (small) circulation. Sometimes free fluid is detected in the outer shell of the lung (the pleural cavity), which is a consequence of the increased pressure in the pulmonary vessels. Echocardiography method - one of the key in the diagnosis of disease. Echocardiography helps to identify an increase in the size of the heart chambers, reducing its pumping function, in particular such thing as ejection fraction of the heart ventricles. In addition, echocardiography allows to specify the severity of mitral and tricuspid heart valves, as well as the presence of intracardiac thrombus.
Radioisotope heart study (scintigraphyinfarction) is conducted to clarify the status of the pumping function of the heart, as well as to identify the deceased infarction zone. In vivo myocardial biopsy - a surgical method to get to the microscopic study of the pieces of heart muscle from its various chambers, it is necessary to clarify the nature of the disease and further treatment. Technically, this is done as follows: puncture under local anesthesia (dotted line) major artery and vein, and then they go to the heart have a special tool with small scissors in the end. Quite often, myocardial biopsy is performed simultaneously with coronaroangiography (introduction of contrast medium in the heart supplying the coronary arteries). This approach helps eliminate the patient with coronary heart disease, as one of the diseases that have similar symptoms with dilated cardiomyopathy. Both studies are performed under X-ray control of the television.
Principles of treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy
General principles of treatment of dilatedcardiomyopathy do not differ from the treatment of chronic heart failure. In cases of secondary dilated cardiomyopathy additionally provides treatment prior disease (heart disease and valve, etc.), as well as taking all the measures to eliminate the causes of the disease. A few words about the contemporary possibilities of surgical treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. The most effective method of treatment in stage heart failure is transplantation (transplantation) of the heart. Features of this operation is limited for obvious reasons in the world.
As an alternative to heart transplantation is currentlytime to prolong the life of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy proposed and carried out reconstructive operations aimed at eliminating the mitral and tricuspid heart valves. Surgical elimination of failure of these valves allows for a little while "slow down" approach the final stage of the disease. Another alternative to heart transplantation for patients with dilated cardiomyopathy is partial removal of the left ventricle in order to reduce its size (Batista operation). Unfortunately, the "jewelry" operation is still not widespread in our country. Recently, for the treatment of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy have been offered special pacemaker models that allow us to work synchronous ventricular. This improves the blood filling of the heart ventricles and increase the pumping function of the heart. In some models of these devices is provided in diagnostics and removal of a number of arrhythmias. Given that life expectancy in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy is much lower than that of healthy people, you need to use any chance to prolong their lives.
disease prevention methods
Prevention of the disease is similar in many respects tomeasures used to eliminate the secondary dilated cardiomyopathy. It is to avoid the use of alcohol, cocaine, careful monitoring of indicators of cardiac activity during cancer chemotherapy. Since childhood, it is useful to hardening of the body. Complete rejection of alcohol in alcoholic varieties of dilated cardiomyopathy can improve the contractile function of the heart and eliminate the need for his transplant. Unfortunately, in most cases the disease is detected at the stage of heart failure. Early diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy is possible at random (screening) the implementation of Echocardiography at the annual clinical examination and during the examination of persons with the disease burdened by heredity. Early diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy is also improves the efficiency of its medical treatment.