What are the causes of the UPU?
Formation of the heart occurs 2-8 weekpregnancy, and that defects develop during this period. They may be inherited, or may occur under the influence of negative factors. Sometimes CHD combined with malformations of other organs, as a component of some hereditary syndromes (fetal alcohol syndrome, Down's syndrome, etc.).
TO risk groups birth of a child with congenital heart disease are women:
- with spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) and stillbirths in history;
- older than 35 years;
- smoked and consumed alcohol during pregnancy;
- in which the UPU families celebrated as a hereditary disease, ie, either they themselves or their relatives have the UPU; here are also cases of stillbirths in the family and other anomalies;
- living in environmentally disadvantaged areas;
- undergone during pregnancy, infectious diseases (especially rubella);
- use during pregnancy, certain drugs, such as sulfa drugs, some antibiotics, aspirin.
Prenatal diagnosis of CHD
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of prenatal (ieprenatal) diagnosis of CHD. While many vices radically treated surgically in the first days of life, and some do not require surgery, there are a number of situations where the child will have a large number of life-saving operations until a heart transplant. Such a child is literally chained to a hospital bed, his growth and development are violated, social adaptation is limited.
Fortunately, it is possible to predictbirth of a child with CHD. To do this, every woman should starting from the 14th week of pregnancy, the fetus undergo ultrasound examination. Unfortunately, the information content of the method depends on the qualifications of the doctor performing the investigation. Not every expert on prenatal ultrasound is able to recognize the UPU, and the more his type. However, it is obliged under the relevant grounds to suspect him, and if in doubt, as well as accessories women to one or more of the above risk groups to send pregnant in an institution, the doctors who are engaged in directed diagnosis of congenital heart diseases.
Upon detection of the fetus UPU parents receiveinformation on the expected viability of the child, the severity of the disease, the upcoming treatment. In this situation, a woman has the ability to terminate a pregnancy. If she decides to give birth to this child, childbirth occurs in a specialized hospital under close supervision of specialists, and the child operates in the shortest time. In addition, in some cases, the mother before delivery begins to take certain drugs that penetrate through the placenta to the baby, will "maintain" his circulatory system before birth.
This allows the doctor to suspect CHD in the newborn?
There are a number of features that make immediately or within a few days after birth, suggests the presence of CHD children.
Heart murmur, It arises when disturbed normal currentblood (blood or passing through an abnormal opening or encounters in its path narrowing or changing direction) - that is formed between the pressure drops and the heart cavities instead of a linear flow of blood formed turbulent (eddy) flows. However, children in the first days of life noises are not a reliable sign of the UPU. Due to the high pulmonary resistance at this time the pressure in all cavities of the heart is the same, and the blood flows through them smoothly, without creating noise. The doctor can hear the noise only 2-3 hours, but even then they can not be regarded as an absolute sign of pathology, if you remember about the presence of fetal messages. Thus, if an adult heart murmur almost always indicate the presence of disease in neonates, they are diagnostically significant only in conjunction with other clinical manifestations. However, the child must be observed with noise. If the noise remains after 4-5 days, your doctor may suspect at the UPU.
CyanosisOr blueness of the skin. Depending on the type of defect, the blood in varying degrees of depleted oxygen, which creates the characteristic color of the skin. Cyanosis is a manifestation of not only diseases of the heart and blood vessels. It also occurs in diseases of the respiratory system, central nervous system. There are a number of diagnostic techniques that allow to determine the origin of cyanosis.
Heart failure. By understanding heart failurecondition arising from a decrease in the pumping function of the heart. Blood stagnates in the venous line and the arterial blood supply to organs and tissues is reduced. At the UPU cause of heart failure is an overload of different parts of the heart abnormal blood flow. Recognize the presence of heart failure in the newborn is hard enough as it such classic symptoms as increased heart rate, respiratory rate, enlarged liver, swelling, generally characteristic of the condition of the newborn. Only being overly severe, these symptoms may be signs of heart failure.
Spasm of peripheral vessels. Typically, peripheral vascular spasm manifested pallor and cold extremities, tip of the nose. It develops as a compensatory response in heart failure.
Violations of the characteristics of the electrical activity of the heart (Rhythm and conduction). The doctor can identify them either auscultation (using a stethoscope), or on the electrocardiogram.
What can enable parents to suspect at the UPU child?
Severe heart disease is usually detected in thematernity hospital. However, if the pathology is implicit, the child may be discharged home. What can parents notice? If the child is lethargic, poor sucking, often regurgitates, turns blue when crying or feeding time, the heart rate at 150 beats him up. / Min., You will certainly need to pay attention to this pediatrician.