Laboratory and instrumental research methods are used to diagnose dilatation cardiomyopathy. Myocardial scintigraphy is used to determine the pump function. The most effective method of treatment is heart transplantation.
Methods of diagnosis of the disease
In addition to the usual medical examination, various diagnostic procedures perform various diagnostic procedures. Biochemical studies of blood and urine make it possible to identify various toxic substances, as well as a shortage of vitamins. In electrocardiography, signs of the characteristic of the disease increase in the size of the heart, as well as persistent sinus tachycardia (heart rate, usually exceed 100 beats per minute.) It is often identified by violations of the conductivity of the heart pulse in the form of various blockades. X-ray examination of the chest organs makes it possible to detect a significant increase in the size of the heart and blood in the pulmonary (small) circle circle. Sometimes free liquid is revealed in the outer sheath of the lungs (pleural cavities), which is a consequence of high pressure in the vessels of the lungs. Echocardiography method - one of the main in the diagnosis of the disease. Echocardiography helps to identify an increase in the size of the heart chambers, a decrease in its pumping function, in particular such an indicator as a fraction of the christlets of the heart. In addition, echocardiography allows you to clarify the severity of lack of mitral and tricuspid heart valves, as well as the presence of intracardiac thromboms.
Radioisotope examination of the heart (myocardial scintigraphy) is carried out to clarify the state of the pump function of the heart, as well as to identify the deceased myocardium zones. Lifting myocardial biopsy is a surgical method that allows for microscopic examination pieces of heart muscle from different cameras, which is necessary to clarify the nature of the disease and further treatment. Technically, this is done as follows: under local anesthesia pierce (punctured) large artery and vein, then they spend a special tool with small scissors to the heart at the end. Quite often, the biopsy of myocardium is performed simultaneously with the coronoagographics (the introduction of a contrast agent into the blood supplying heart coronary arteries). Such an approach helps to be excluded in a patient with coronary heart disease, as one of the diseases that are similar to dilatation cardiomyopathy of manifestation. Both studies are performed under X-ray-television control.
Principles of treating dilatation cardiomyopathy
General principles of treating dilatation cardiomyopathy do not differ from the treatment of chronic heart failure. In cases of secondary dilatation cardiomyopathy, the preceding disease is additionally carried out (the vice of the heart valve and T.D.), and all measures are being taken to eliminate the causes of the disease. A few words about the modern possibilities of surgical treatment of dilatation cardiomyopathy. The most effective method of treatment in the stage of heart failure is a transplant (transplantation) of the heart. The possibilities of this operation are limited for obvious reasons worldwide.
As an alternative to heart transplantation Currently, reconstructive operations are proposed to extend the life of patients with dilatation cardiomyopathy, aimed at eliminating the lack of mitral and tricusspid heart valves. Surgical elimination of insufficiency of these valves allows for some time «brake» The onset of the final stage of the disease. Another alternative heart transplantation in patients with dilatation cardiomyopathy is partial removal of the left ventricle in order to reduce its size (Batista operation). Unfortunately, these «Jewelry» The operations have not yet been widely distributed in our country. Recently, special models of electrocardiomulators have been proposed for the treatment of patients with dilatation cardiomyopathy, which allow you to make the work of the ventricles of the heart synchronous. This allows you to improve the filling of the ventricles of the heart with blood and increase the pump function of the heart. In some models of such devices, the function of diagnostics and eliminate the arrhythmias. Given that the life expectancy in patients with dilatation cardiomyopathy is noticeably lower than in healthy people, you need to use any chance to extend their lives.
Methods of disease prevention
The prevention of the disease is largely similar to the measures used to eliminate secondary dilated cardiomyopathy. It consists in refusing to drink alcohol, cocaine, careful control of cardiac activity during tumor chemotherapy. Starting since childhood, it is useful to conduct an organism hardening. A complete refusal to use alcohol with alcohol varieties of dilatation cardiomyopathy can improve the contractile function of the heart and eliminate the need for its transplant. Unfortunately, in most cases, the disease is detected at the stage of heart failure. Early diagnostics of dilatation cardiomyopathy is possible with random (screening) performing echocardiography during the annual clinical examination, as well as during examination of persons with heredity burdened under this disease. Early diagnosis of dilatation cardiomyopathy also makes it possible to increase the effectiveness of its medical treatment.