Blood sugar: norm and pathology


Determining the level of blood sugar - one of the most common methods of laboratory research. What can tell this analysis, you can learn by reading the article.

As it appears in blood glucose

Blood sugar: norm and pathology
The fact that many used to call the blood sugar,in fact, it is only one representative of this large group - glucose. This carbohydrate provides a healthy body with energy by more than 50%. This is its main and almost sole function. Most of the glucose enters the bloodstream, soaked from the intestine after digestion of sucrose and other carbohydrate foods. Some of it is immediately available at the disposal of the body's cells, and the rest prudently accumulated by the body in the liver and muscles in the form of a special substance - glycogen. Thanks to his presence, our cells no shortage of glucose between meals and at high loads. If necessary, glucose can also be synthesized from a variety of substances, proteins, amino acids, lactic acid, pyruvic acid and other non-carbohydrate components.

The regulation of blood glucose levels

The concentration of sugar in the blood is maintained ata constant level thanks to the ability of converting excess glucose into glycogen in the body, and the deficit - the splitting of glycogen to glucose or its synthesis from non-carbohydrate components. Regulating the process by various hormones. Insulin - pancreatic hormone that stimulates glucose uptake by liver cells, muscle and adipose tissue, which causes a decrease of its level in blood. The opposite effect has a number of hormones of various organs: glucagon (pancreas), adrenaline, cortisol (adrenal gland), growth hormone, thyrotropin (pituitary), thyroxine, triiodothyronine (thyroid). Briefly raise blood sugar levels after a meal may, emotional distress and physical work. Therefore, glucose analysis rented an empty stomach, in the absence before this exercise and stress.

What to tell the level of glucose in the blood

The normal level of sugar for children considered3,9-5,8 mmol / L (70-105 mg / dL), and for adults - 3,9-6,1 mmol / L (70-110 mg / dL). Out of glucose concentration for upper limit of normal is called hyperglycemia, and the bottom - hypoglycemia.

Causes of high blood sugar

Temporary hyperglycemia may be associated withfood intake, physical activity and stress. It is not dangerous and takes place without any external intervention. The most common disease that is accompanied by a steady rise in glucose levels is diabetes. But there are a number of other pathologies, for which hyperglycemia - a characteristic symptom:

  • central nervous system;
  • an increase of hormonal activity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism), adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma), pituitary (acromegaly);
  • epilepsy;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • chronic liver and kidney disease;
  • taking certain medications (corticosteroids, estrogens, caffeine).
  • Causes of low blood sugar

    As normal low glucose levelsIt may occur in pregnant women. Indeed, in this period in a woman's body develop active consumer of carbohydrates. Hypoglycemia can also cause the following reasons:

    • Blood sugar: norm and pathology prolonged fasting;
    • carbohydrate malabsorption (gastric and intestinal diseases);
    • chronic liver disease;
    • hormonal adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease), thyroid (hypothyroidism), the pituitary gland (hypopituitarism);
  • sarcoidosis;
  • fermentopathy (galactosemia, Gierke's disease, impaired glucose tolerance);
  • malignant tumor;
  • fever;
  • overdose of insulin and drugs to reduce sugar;
  • taking certain medications (steroids, amphetamines).
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