What is hypothyroidism?
Thyroid hormones regulate the body's metabolism, and therefore control weight, help to be energetic, have good skin and hair.
There are several groups of reasons that canlead to a reduction of thyroid function - hypothyroidism. This defeat of the thyroid gland, disturbance of a coherent regulatory activity centers, taking certain medications. Up to 50% of patients who underwent surgery on the thyroid gland, suffer from hypothyroidism.
The large number of people develop hypothyroidismdue to lack of iodine in food and water. Especially it concerns the residents of geographical areas, soil and water which poor these micronutrients. In this case, there is a compensatory increase in thyroid size, which is called endemic goiter.
Iodine - a vital trace element. It is necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine). For normal synthesis of these hormones necessary daily dietary intake of 200-300 micrograms of iodine.
When iodine deficiency in the human thyroidiron to synthesize hormones in sufficient quantities can not violate all metabolic processes. Especially dangerous is the lack of iodine for children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women.
However, keep in mind that the iodine in large doses suppresses thyroid function and cause temporary hypothyroidism. It is therefore important "golden" middle.
What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?
Hypothyroidism develops slowly, it is long, it can be very hidden, unclear.
How to determine what you should refer to an endocrinologist and get tested?
Activity: If you have reduced capacity for work, always want to sleep, you'll quickly get tired of a small amount of work;
leather: if the skin has become dry, nails - brittle hair simply bundles remain on the comb, and in the outer part of the eyebrows fall out completely. You often freezes in a warm room, almost never sweat, the skin on the elbows, knees and feet rough, scaly. If you are already tired again rubbed into the skin nourishing cream, pedicure and advances held for a brief period;
person: if the constant swelling around the eyes, pale skin jaundiced color on the cheeks - blush;
weight increases, and you will not overeat. Appetite is reduced;
it began a slow, fuzzy voice - hoarse;
if you have reduced heart rate(Rate of 60-80 beats per minute), disturb frequent bloating and constipation, you notice loss of memory and a bad mood, lethargy, depression, you have anemia (even if you are taking iron supplements), there is a seal and soreness in the muscles;
in severe advanced cases of hypothyroidism can be fluid accumulation in the lungs, abdomen, is very pronounced peeling of the skin - it pours like dandruff.
Hypothyroidism in women
often leads to infertility and pregnancy ifoccurred, then half the time it was suspended. Thyroid hormones the mother through the placenta to enter the fetal blood and protect it from hypothyroidism until delivery;
if a future mother hypothyroidism - Receptionmedications (thyroid hormone) during pregnancy is mandatory! This allows not only to make a long-awaited baby, but also to prevent possible mental retardation.
In areas with a lack of iodine in food and water,iodine deficiency in the mother - the most common cause of hypothyroidism in newborns. If, however, after the birth of the child does not receive a sufficient amount of iodine in mother's milk or food, hypothyroidism persists and can lead to cretinism - permanently damage your mental and physical disabilities, dementia.
Need to know: all the children in the hospital examined for congenital hypothyroidism. However, milder forms of hypothyroidism may be missed.
As suspected hypothyroidism in the newborn?
These kids seem to be quiet, rarely cry,weeping may be hoarse, they are very much sleep and when I wake up, play a reluctant, hard and long to learn new. There are neurological symptoms that causes the address to the neuropathologist, the skin is usually dry, the child is almost does not sweat.
Mothers try to dress your child more warmly, becausehandles and feet are constantly cold. On pale skin translucent flasks, reminding spots - marble skin. And if the child does not eat well, gaining enough weight, height, be sure to consult an endocrinologist!
It is better to refute concerns than to miss the initial manifestations of the disease.
Of course, many symptoms of hypothyroidism can occur in other diseases, such as hypovitaminosis. But, if you have found yourself in a number of symptoms - be sure to consult an endocrinologist!
To confirm or refute the diagnosis will help the study of blood hormones. For a start it will be enough to determine the level of TSH and free T4.
What kind of hormones?
Once the body is reduced in hormone levelsthyroid (T3 and T4), is produced in the pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (means directed action on the thyroid gland) - signal the thyroid gland to increase its hormone synthesis.
If the thyroid gland for any reason(Iodine deficiency, thyroid disease) can not synthesize enough of hormones, the blood is greatly increased TSH and T3 and T4 decreases. This indicates hypothyroidism. It's good to hold and ultrasound of the thyroid gland.
Is it difficult to treat hypothyroidism?
Treatment consists of prescribingpreparations containing thyroid hormones. With early diagnosis and proper treatment of unpleasant symptoms of the disease disappear fairly quickly, there is a good mood and desire to work. In most cases, it is necessary to constantly take drugs throughout their lives.
Speaking of babies, then if treatedbegun in time (4-6 months) and properly carried out before the age of three, the children intelligence is not disrupted, and the growth and skeletal development occurs according to age norms.