Addison's disease: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment


  • What is Addison's disease
  • What are the symptoms of Addison's disease
  • Diagnosis of Addison Disease
  • Treatment of Addison's disease

  • What is Addison's disease

    Addison disease amazing on average 4 of
    every 100,000 people. She can start at any age and
    meets in men and women approximately with the same frequency. In 30%
    cases of Addison disease - secondary illness and arises as
    Consequence of malignant tumor, amyloido, tuberculosis, etc. In 70%
    Cases The reason for this state is definitely not known, but scientists
    It is assumed that the adrenal glands are destroyed as a result of autoimmune

    The function of the adrenal glands is also suppressed in people receiving
    Corticosteroids, for example prednisolone. Cancellation of corticosteroids must
    Gradually occur, with a slow dose reduction. When reception
    Corticosteroids stop suddenly after a long (month or more)
    therapies, adrenal glands for several weeks or even months
    turn out to be unable to produce corticosteroids in sufficient

    Addison's disease: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
    Some other medicines, such as antifungal drug
    ketoconazole (nipped, oronazole) can also block natural
    Corticosteroid generation, leading to their deficiency.
    Corticosteroid shortages leads to many violations. One of
    they are that the body displays too much sodium and
    Too little potassium, resulting in sodium content in blood
    decreases, and the content of potassium, respectively, grows. Kidney ne
    able to concentrate urine, so when a person with a deficit
    Corticosteroids drinks too much water or loses too much
    sodium amount, blood sodium level decreases. failure to
    Concentrate urine ultimately causes abundant urinary and

    With severe dehydration and low level of sodium, blood volume decreases, and in severe cases, shock can develop.

    Corticosteroid shortages also increases sensitivity to
    insulin - hormone, normal circulating in the blood, so the content
    Sugar in the blood can fall sharply. With a shortage of corticosteroids in
    The body is disturbed by the formation of carbohydrates from proteins, rises
    susceptibility to infections and slow down wound healing. Fall
    Muscle tone, including the tone of the heart muscle, and the power of heart
    Reduction decreases.

    To compensate for corticosteroid shortages, hypophyses produces
    more adrenocorticotropic hormone, which is normal
    Stimulates adrenal glands. Takakadrenocorticotropic hormone
    affects the production of melanin, people with Addison's disease often
    Excessive skin pigmentation and mouth mucosa develop,
    usually in the form of spots. This happens in people with dark skin, although in
    this case change coloring is difficult to recognize. Excessive
    Pigmentation does not occur in adrenal insufficiency,
    caused by damage pituitary or hypothalamus when the main
    Violations are associated with a deficiency of adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    What are the symptoms of Addison's disease

    The earliest symptoms of Addison's disease are weakness, fatigue and
    dizziness when you get up from the position lying or sitting. The skin darkens I
    It becomes like a flubble, and the dark color appears on
    open and in closed parts of the body. On the skin of his forehead, faces and shoulders can
    come black freckles; Characteristic blue-black coloring of the skin
    Around the nipples, lips, mouth, rectum, scrotum or vagina. Sick
    losing weight and lose appetite; Development is developing. Pains appear in
    muscles, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Many become very sensitive
    To cold. If the disease proceeds not in very hard form, symptoms
    manifest only during stress.

    If the disease is not treated, severe abdominal pain may occur,
    There is a pronounced weakness, arterial decreases significantly
    pressure, renal failure and shock, especially in
    Stressful situations - during injury, operation or severe infection. IN
    very soon may occur death.

    Diagnosis of Addison Disease

    Since the symptoms are developing slowly and at first, unauthorized, to
    No laboratory analysis allows you to put with confidence
    Diagnosis, doctors often do not recognize Addison's disease in the initial stage.
    Sometimes severe stress, such as an accident, operation or
    serious illness, makes the symptoms more obvious and provoke
    the crisis.

    Blood tests can identify the lack of corticosteroids, especially
    Cortisol, as well as low sodium content and high potassium.
    Results of blood analysis per nitrogen level of urea and creatinine usually
    indicate a reduction in the kidney function. Definition of content
    Corticosteroids are carried out after administration of adrenocorticotropic
    hormone (stimulation test), which helps the doctor to distinguish
    Insufficiency of adrenal function from lack of function
    pituitary. In the latter case, another analysis is required - after injection
    remiocticotropic hormone rilizing factor to see, not
    Is the condition of the patient with an insufficient function of the hypothalamus.

    Treatment of Addison's disease

    Regardless of the cause of Addison's disease represents a threat to life, and in
    First of all, the patient is prescribed Courtfather. Treatment usually
    start with prednisic-wing intake. If the patient's condition
    Heavy, first introduced intravenously hydrocortisone (SOLU-CORTEF,
    hydrocortisone sodium succinate) and then moving to tablets

    As a rule, people with Addison's disease also need
    Reception 1 or 2 Fludrocortisone Tablets (Cortinef, Floerinf) daily,
    To restore normal excretion from sodium and potassium organism.
    The flortison dose is gradually reduced, subsequently some people
    can generally cancel this drug, but prednisone they should
    take one's day. When the body is subject to stress,
    Especially in case of severe illness, large doses may be needed
    Prednisolone. Although patients are forced to continue treatment throughout
    life, on the duration of life it usually does not affect.

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