Trachoma (Greek trashoma -. Grungy) - a chronic infectious eye disease caused by chlamydia and characterized by lesions conjunctiva and the cornea with the outcome of scarring conjunctiva, eyelids and cartilage total blindness.
The causative agent of trachoma Chlamydia trachomatis opened in 1907 cityIt multiplies in the epithelial cells of the conjunctiva and cornea. The properties and intracellular development cycle similar to other chlamydia. The main sources of infection in the foci of trachoma are patients with active forms of the disease. A significant role in the transmission of infection and pathogen belongs carriers, those with unusual localization of her (for example, in the lacrimal pathways) and atypical course of the process. Not excluded, and the role of flies in the mechanical transfer of the pathogen. Susceptibility to trachoma general and high. Immunity after suffering the disease is not produced.
Trachoma is common in countriestropical and subtropical belt; this infection is eliminated in Russia. In its distribution play an important role in living conditions and the level of health culture. Transfer pathogen carried out direct and indirect way: by hands, clothing, hygiene, contaminated secretions.
The manifestation of trachoma
The incubation period - 8-16 days. Usually both eyes are affected. In the early stages of the disease the conjunctiva becomes inflamed, red and irritated, you may receive a discharge. In the later stages of the conjunctiva undergoes scarring formed volvulus century, the cornea becomes cloudy.
There are clinical stages of trachoma throughout. Suspicion of trachoma, when in doubt, there is no clear clinical symptoms; pretrahomu prefollikulyarnuyu trachoma or when there is infiltration and conjunctival hyperemia, but no follicles; and 4 stages of trachoma. Symptoms typical of the 1st stage of trachoma: in this stage of pronounced inflammation, amid congested (overly congested blood vessels) conjunctiva and eyelid folds transition determined follicles and large papillae.
Distinctive features of the 2nd stage of trachomaThe hallmark is the decay of some follicles and scarring, pronounced inflammation merger follicles that attaches conjunctiva gelatinous appearance. At this stage the most contagious patients.
Symptoms that can diagnose the 3rdtrachoma stage. The main distinguishing feature is the retrogressive nature of the disease, ie, scarring process in the conjunctiva dominates the infiltration and presence of follicles, although the inflammation phenomena occur and possible periods of exacerbation.
4th stage. Trachoma stage 4 is a complete process of scarring with no signs of inflammation. This stage of full recovery. Objectively - the conjunctiva century has a whitish appearance with lots of stellate scars.
Treatment and prevention of trachoma
Locally applied 1% -s' ointments or solutionstetracycline, erythromycin, oletetrin 10% solutions of sodium sulfapiridazina 5% -s ointment or 30-50% solutions etazola 3-6 times a day. If necessary, after 1-2 weeks of treatment produced the expression of follicles. In the case of severe trachoma shows the general use of antibiotics, as well as vitamin and elimination of allergic reactions. If deformation develops century, clouding of the cornea, surgery may be necessary. In the combined therapy using interferon and its inductors and immunomodulators. With timely and systematic application of antibiotics and sulfonamides is possible to achieve a cure and prevent complications. With delayed treatment may develop purulent helcoma, Trichiasis, dry eye syndrome.
Prevention is the early detection of patients, their clinical examination and regular treatment, as well as personal hygiene.