Syphilis is a chronic infectious disease,transmitted primarily through sexual contact. Syphilis is a fairly common disease, in recent years there has even been a slight increase in the incidence. Both women and men are equally affected. Syphilis is widespread among promiscuous people.
The disease is caused by Treponema pallidum. Treponema pallidum is able to maintain the viability and virulence of the human body is to dry different biological substrates. Infection occurs mainly through sexual contact. Typically, the source of infection - a sick person with syphilis. However, do not rule out the household path of transmission of the pathogen. Infection with syphilis also possible through direct contact of a healthy person, with damage to the skin and mucous membranes, with syphilis. In addition, infection is possible with kisses, bites, breastfeeding, blood transfusions and patient with syphilis in utero. The causative agent of syphilis enters the body through broken skin or mucous membranes, and these injuries can be extremely small. Infection can occur when the body gets too little piece of pale treponemes. Thus, not always there is the possibility of syphilis through sexual contact with the patient.
Syphilis is a disease that affects the entire human body. Disease in untreated patients lasts for many years. It is characterized by undulating course with a change of periods of exacerbation.
The incubation period of syphilis is 10 to90 days - 3 weeks on average (21 days). After this period, on-site implementation of Treponema pallidum in the body there is the first sign of syphilis is called primary syphiloma or chancre. So begins primary syphilisLasting 5-6 weeks. Solid chancre on the genitals may outwardly resemble the symptoms of inflammatory diseases, such as vulva and cervical erosion.
What does the local manifestation of the primary look like?syphilis in a woman - a solid chancre - and where does he appear? The place of appearance of the hard chancre depends on sex preferences. Most often it can be the area of the labia minora and labia minora, the entrance to the vagina, and the cervix. Less commonly, the anus, mouth, and lips. At first, a clearly defined reddening of a round shape appears, with a diameter of up to 1.5 cm. Redness does not cause a woman any worries. After 2-3 days, it turns into a bulge with slight peeling on the surface and compaction of the base. A few days later, a wound forms on the surface of this bulge - erosion or an ulcer with a solid base. The surface of erosion or sores is covered with a dirty coating. The eroded hard chancre is a painless formation and does not cause concern to a woman. Such a manifestation of syphilis, as a hard chancre, exists for 5-6 weeks, and then heals on its own.
When you join a bacterial infectiona picture of virtually normal inflammation of genitals - vulvitis, vaginitis, or inflammation of cervical erosion, which masks the symptoms of syphilis. There are itching, burning, pain, especially aggravated after urinating or while driving.
Another manifestation of syphilis in the early stagesIt is to increase the regional, that is located close to the place of the appearance of the chancre, the lymph nodes. The increase in lymph nodes occurs in response to the spread of T. pallidum in a woman's body.
During the first weeks of the existence of solidchancre, it is the only manifestation of syphilis. Laboratory blood tests have not yet identified the causative agent. Treponema pallidum can be detected only under a microscope in a discharge from solid chancre. The use of self-medication at this stage in the form of treating the surface of solid chancre with antimicrobial solutions, cauterization with "green" or iodine, makes it difficult to diagnose "syphilis". The solid chancre disguises itself as other diseases and may be mistaken for a herpetic disease.
Within 7-14 days after the formation of the chancre or4-5 weeks after infection due to the active dissemination of Treponema pallidum in human body and the appearance of the body's immune response, blood analysis reveals disease.
By the end of the first period of syphilis patient begins to increase body temperature, a headache, weakness, fatigue - the usual manifestations of a common infection of the body.
The first period ends with the development of the diseasewith the appearance of rash on the skin of the patient. These rashes can be quite varied and resemble the symptoms of various diseases. From this point begins the second period of syphilis - secondary syphilis.
In secondary syphilis, occurs spreadinfection in the body through the lymphatic and blood vessels, so the secondary syphilis is characterized by the various manifestations in the form of skin lesions and mucous membranes, lymph nodes increase in all groups (generalized lymphadenopathy), and visceral.
The human body is hard to fight infection andthe result is the disappearance of lesions without treatment within a few weeks. The disease becomes latent form and is detected only by laboratory testing. However, after some time the rash reappear, but in smaller numbers. So "waves" secondary syphilis can be from 3-6 months to several years. secondary syphilis danger is that pale treponema affects the internal organs of a person, causing them irreversible changes, often resulting in disability. During secondary syphilis sharply hair loss increases. It has a focal character and leads to baldness.
Following secondary syphilis in some patients comes the third period in the development of the disease - tertiary. It continues to the end of a person’s life. Tertiary syphilis is characterized by the appearance of gross changes in many organs of the patient. Tumor formations, which are a manifestation of tertiary syphilis, can be found everywhere. They disintegrate, while damaging organs. The nervous system, liver, kidneys, heart are affected. This sometimes leads to the death of the patient. In the third period, a person with syphilis becomes practically not contagious. In his body, isolated single pale treponemas are found.
For women, it is important to remember that there is always areal chance of contracting syphilis. During pregnancy, an extremely high probability of transmission from mother to child. It must be remembered that early access to a doctor provides rapid cure and guarantees the recovery. If a woman has had sexual contact with syphilis, the occurrence of the disease can be prevented by conduct preventive treatment.
If you find yourself suspiciousmanifestations of syphilis, or if you just want to be examined to rule out the disease, you can contact the antenatal clinic to see a doctor or gynecologist directly into the Skin and Venereal Diseases Dispensary for venereal diseases doctor.
Diagnosis of syphilis
If during the examination by a gynecologist atYou found suspicious lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, or the blood tests will show whether you have this disease, you will be directed to the Skin and Venereal Diseases Dispensary. Syphilis - a sexually transmitted disease and a complete examination and treatment it is possible only in conditions of STI clinic.
At the clinic to confirm the diagnosis of conductvarious studies to be found in the serum of the presence of pale treponemes (PCR) or antibody thereto (immunofluorescence reaction, immunoblotting, enzyme immunoassay, the reaction of immobilization pale treponem et al.) or to tissues, disrupted syphilitic infection (Wasserman reaction test rapid plasma reagin and etc.).
Treatment of syphilis
All sex partners of women undergo examination and treatment is mandatory. Appointed antisyphyllitic specific drugs and other medicines.
During the course of treatment and after a woman necessarily examined for the presence of T. pallidum. The disease involves a long registration and control of STI clinics.