Congenital immunodeficiency

Content

  • The concept of human immunity
  • The concept of congenital immunodeficiency



  • The concept of human immunity

    In our bodies there is a whole system,able to protect us from all kinds of infections. We are not the only ones in this world. However, there is also contact with viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. They also are fighting for survival, and live in all organisms, including human. Confront these uninvited guests, and are called immune cells, which is a complex of organs and cells, directed to perform immunological functions, ie for protection against an organism genetically foreign substances entering from the outside or generated in the body. Organs produce specific immune cells (lymphocytes, plasmocytes), biologically active substances (antibodies) that recognize and destroy, neutralize or penetrated into the body therein formed cells and other foreign substances (antigens).

    There are two types of immunity:

    • cellular
    • humoral

    Cellular immunity is composed of T-cells. They protect us from viruses and bacteria, radiation, from stress and allergic reactions.

    Cellular immunity plays an important role in the following reactions:

    • delayed-type hypersensitivity (eg, tuberculin test), allergic contact dermatitis
    • defense against intracellular parasites
    • antiviral and antifungal immunity
    • transplant rejection
    • antitumor immunity

    Congenital immunodeficiencyHumoral immunity part - is the blood, lymph,the complement system. This part of our cleanses the body of toxins, nourishing nutrients. Carries body "healthy" the purified blood. In addition, it is responsible for the formation of antibodies, which include the so-called B-cells. They are produced in the bone marrow, stem cells. Antibodies are proteins represented immunoglobulins. Now open the following immunoglobulin - IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD and IgE. Of these, the most numerous, the most versatile and the most widely studied are immunoglobulins A classes, and G. They neutralized to 99% of pathogens and toxins entering our body.

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) can be called the head of the familyimmunoglobulins, as it is about 75% of the entire family. It contains antibodies against almost all bacteria and virus protect our skin and the respiratory system and operates in the blood. IgG (particularly IgGI) is the only immunoglobulin that can cross the placenta, and is therefore extremely important to protect the baby from infection.

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) show theirno biological activity in the blood and on the surface of the mucous membranes of respiratory tract, eyes, mouth and nose, the gastrointestinal tract. To understand the importance of this, it suffices to recall that the vast majority of infectious pathogens penetrate into our body is through the mucous membranes.

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) contained in the blood serum. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is responsible for all allergic reactions. Protects the body from insect bites, reactions to chocolate, eggs and fish.

    Increase immunoglobulin M (IgM) indicates the presence of infection with syphilis and rubella. Increased Ig M is also observed in liver disease (especially hepatitis and liver cirrhosis).

    If any of these antibodies are not produced, there is immunodeficiency.



    The concept of congenital immunodeficiency

    Immunodeficiency (immune deficiency)- A group of different conditions in which the immune system does not function properly, so the disease caused by infection occur and recur more frequently, more severe and last longer than usual.

    Immune deficiency can exist from birth (congenital immunodeficiency) or evolve over a lifetime.

    Congenital immunodeficiencies are usually transmitted bysuccession. Although it is a rare condition, there are more than 10 different hereditary immunodeficiencies. In some cases, reduced number of white blood cells, in others it does not differ from the norm, but these cells are not functioning correctly. Third leukocytes can not perform its function due to the lack of other components of the immune system such as antibodies or proteins of the complement system. Treatment of congenital immunodeficiency engaged pediatrician.

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