Infectious diseases are caused bypathogens and are transmitted from an infected person to a healthy body in different ways. The ability to induce the pathological process in microorganisms and divers, all depends on the activity and rate of release of toxic substances and toxins. The causative agents of intestinal infections in children and adults are distributed mainly through water and food.
Salmonellosis is a typical representativeacute infectious intestinal diseases. The main source of infection are considered to be food, canned meat, minced meat, boiled sausages, contamination of the pathogen, and the main route of transmission - nutritional. Salmonella possess very high resistance to the environment, can easily and seamlessly reproduce in foods, it is not changing their appearance and odor. The incubation period of the disease is small and lasts from 1 to 3 hours. During salmonellosis decided to allocate 3 clinical forms.
- The localized form - the most commonAlternatively, it proceeds in the form of gastritis or gastroenteritis, in which the symptoms of infectious diseases in children are fever, epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting. After a few hours there is a typical sign of the disease - diarrhea. Stool watery liquid and, in some cases, with mucus and blood, with an unpleasant putrid odor. Child bother false urge to defecate and cramping during the intestinal loops. In the case of repeated vomiting and frequent diarrhea joined signs of water-salt metabolism, develops dehydration, convulsions and collapse.
- Generalized form is characterized by severecourse of the disease on the background of apathy, abrupt retardation of the child with a decrease in blood pressure, a marked slowing of the pulse, and cold sores.
- Subclinical or bacteriocarrier expressed in the absence of any clinical manifestations of disease at detection of Salmonella in faeces physiological baby - urine and feces.
The main pathogens of viral infectionsdiseases in children are a widespread group of organisms enteroviruses and rotaviruses, adenoviruses and astroviruses. Infection occurs by the fecal-oral route with food, water and contact transmission mechanism. The main distinguishing features of viral infection of the intestinal mucosa is the appearance of copious watery stools, usually without any admixture of mucus and blood. Little worried about the patient is strong and frequent vomiting, body temperature at the same time usually ranges subfebrile, symptoms of intoxication expressed moderately, and change the water balance is not achieved significant deviations. The child feels well, playing, active, and takes the food.
Bright presentation infectious diseaseschildren is also food poisoning, which is associated with the use of known contaminated products such pathogens as E. coli, streptococci, staphylococci, clostridia, Proteus, and others. The violation of sanitary standards, conditions of preparation and storage of food stimulates the multiplication of pathogens in meat dishes , milk and vegetables. The main role in the pathogenesis of the disease is given the action of the toxins that are causing significant damage to the intestinal mucosa, violate its capacity for absorption and lead to the development of severe hemodynamic disturbances, which is the presentation of infectious diseases in children. The disease begins in a few hours after ingestion of unsuitable products with repeated vomiting, pain in the abdomen and frequent nausea. Fast enough to these symptoms joins diarrhea and watery liquid, sometimes mixed with mucus. Usually, when food poisoning body temperature rarely rises to high numbers, but worried about the baby growing weakness, pale skin, reduced pressure, cold extremities.