Cocchi - a bacteria oval or spherical shape (the Greek word translated as kokkos
seed "). Hundreds wide variety of cocci surround a person throughout his life, but no,
perhaps microbe better known than Staphylococcus aureus.
Microbiological term staphylococcus wasintroduced into medical practice in the distant 1881. Under the microscope, it is seen that cocci are going in a group, like a bunch of grapes, hence the name, for staphylos in Greek means precisely "bunch".
This word - "staph" - now practically everyone knows and few have causes positive
emotions. Dozens of diseases of people and animals owe their origin to staphylococcus, in the treatment of these diseases, doctors are experiencing serious difficulties, is not a person on the earth ball, in which at least once in my life have had problems with Fedorov, is associated with staphylococcus.
Staphylococci - a genus of microorganisms is, Today has been known for 27 species, with 14 species
found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans. Most staphylococci are absolutely harmless:
14 of these species are capable of causing only three diseases, but these three are more than enough ...
The risk of any bacteria and pathogens, and Staphylococcus aureus in this aspect is no exception,
It is determined by the presence of the so-called"Pathogenicity factors," -.. That is dangerous is not the microbe itself, but the particular substance (or a part of the microbe or germ formed in the life of the process). Figuratively speaking, the soldier should be afraid, and the knife in his hand.
The uniqueness of staphylococcus consists precisely in the fact that it is the soldier, hung with a variety of
arms up and down. Microbial special forces, in short ...
A small, nondescript and stationary grain - andit looks as Staphylococcus under a microscope - is a formidable opponent: each particle, every element of its structure, every biochemical process - a source of danger.
Surrounding aureus microcapsule reflect attacks of phagocytes (eaters microbial cells)
It promotes the penetration of bacteria in the tissues of the body. The cell wall and causes inflammation
allergic reactions, neutralizes immunoglobulins immobilize phagocytes. numerous
enzymes destroy the cell structure, neutralize antibiotics. And yet formed the so-called
hemolysin - substances that damage the red blood cells,white blood cells and many other cells. Hemolysin as many as four varieties, one the other disgusting. The already considerable arsenal of complementary aureus toxins - the strongest poisons, each with its own effect, and a total of no less than a dozen.
A detailed listing of staph "hazards" may seem to the reader once and very
malicious medical scare. But to do without these descriptions can not be, because real
the essence of staph infections is just a huge number of damaging factors -
amazing and having no analogues in the microbial world.
On one hand, diversity is understandablestaphylococcal disease. This is not some kind of diphtheria bacillus with a single toxin and a single disease. From armed to the teeth aureus can expect anything - and an abscess on the skin, and meningitis, and pneumonia, and sepsis and intestinal infection ...
On the other hand, the real danger is determined by specific staph presence
pathogenicity of the above factors. For it is not necessary that this microbe all these horrors there.
Forms of staphylococcus
Most staphylococci - peaceful guys, wein fact already said that of the 14 species living on humans, only 3 are capable of causing disease - precisely because they only have a weapon (the same pathogenicity factors). That is about the trinity and should talk more.
So, there are three kinds of pathogenic staphylococci: Staphylococcus aureus (Latin -
staphylococcus aureus, and other assaysmedical records never write full name of the genus staphylococcus, and limited to a capital letter «S» - ie S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and saprophytic Staphylococcus aureus (S. saprophyticus).
Saprophytic Staphylococcus aureus - the most "peaceful" and rarely affects children. A great lover of the female
sex - most often it is in women causes inflammation of the bladder (sometimes kidney), as
principal place of its habitat - the skin in the areagenitals and mucous membrane of the urethra. Staphylococcus epidermidis - less choosy, can live anywhere - on any of the mucous membranes, in any part of the skin - this is reflected in the title of the microbe (epidermis - the surface layer of the skin). The ability of S. epidermidis to cause disease is small - the body of a healthy person of any age (even the newborn) is easy to cope with it. Paradoxically lives Staphylococcus epidermidis on the skin, but no skin pustules does not cause almost never. The vast majority of infections occur in people weakened by undergoing surgery, being in intensive care units. Microbe from the surface of the skin through a wound drainage, vascular and urinary catheters enters the body ... It may be, and septicemia, and endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart). It Staphylococcus epidermidis - a true punishment for surgeons dealing with internal prosthesis: any artificial valves, blood vessels, joints, and if infected, it is almost always just that staphylococcus.
And finally, the most famous, sadly, unfortunately, known staph - Staphylococcus. On the background of all the other representatives of staphylococcal tribe seem peaceful household little animals.
Almost all the medical problems associated with the presence of staphylococcus mean it
Only Staphylococcus aureus has a full arsenal of damaging factors. Only he can
fight back hard and imaginatively byantibiotics and antiseptics. No concessions, no allowances for age and gender - and newborns, adults and the elderly: are all vulnerable, sensitive, prone to ... There's no body in the human body, which could not penetrate Staphylococcus aureus and wherever he could cause inflammation. The emergence of no less than 100 of the most dangerous human diseases directly associated with Staphylococcus aureus, and only with him.
Under the microscope, the colonies of Staphylococcus aureus have an orange or yellow color - hence the
name. Microbe surprisingly stable in the environment. Such resistant bacteria have many others, but under the influence of adverse factors, they form spores - bacteria are killed, the controversy remains. Once external conditions improve, the spores are transformed into bacteria, and those already attacked by the human organism. Staph does not form spores. And, nevertheless stable. And always ready.
Staphylococcus aureus does not lose activity whendrying. 12:00 living under direct sunlight. Within 10 minutes the temperature withstand 150 C! Do not die in pure ethanol. Not afraid of hydrogen peroxide is not enough - it produces a special enzyme catalase, which breaks down hydrogen peroxide, and the microbe metabolizes produced with oxygen.
A unique feature is the staph -the ability to survive in solutions of sodium chloride -.. ie salt. 3 teaspoons of salt in a glass of water - easy to sustain. Why is this so important? Yes, because only aureus can survive in the sweat glands - salty human sweat him after what! And the microbe produces lipase, an enzyme that breaks down fats in general and tallow plug in the mouth of the hair follicle, in particular. The obvious and unfortunate consequence: almost 100% of skin ulcers (.. A boil, barley, boils, carbuncles, etc.) - it is only Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus aureus. The very knowledge of this fact is easy to convince the reader that there is no man on earth ball, had never had a staph disease: live life and never find yourself at some acne - is virtually impossible.
But there is staph and its Achilles heel - quite strange, really incomprehensible, but very
high sensitivity to aniline dyes - first of all, to a solution of brilliant green - the same usual zelenke that is in every house.
These skin problems - an example of the typical local Staphylococcus aureus infections.
Surely it flowers in comparison with berries - common infections, or systemic. Microbe
produces a special enzyme - coagulase (this enzyme, in principle, there are only gold
aureus). When the surface of the skin staph gets into the bloodstream, then under the influence
coagulase starts blood clotting and the bacteria are inside mikrotrombov - securely
hidden from the immune protective factors. On one hand, it may be staphylococcal
sepsis (m. e. blood poisoning caused by Staphylococcus), on the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus can reach any organ and, accordingly, in any organ cause suppurative inflammation.
Most often there are staphylococcal pneumonia, valvular heart disease, ulcers can
detected anywhere - and in the liver, andbrain and kidney. One of the most frequent problems - osteomyelitis (bone inflammation). Paradoxically, with open fractures osteomyelitis it is not always staphylococcal, but when it occurs "no reason, no reason at all" - the culprit "celebration" is almost always Staphylococcus aureus.
Since skin can penetrate aureusmammary gland (which is the main reason he purulent mastitis), and from the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract - in the ear cavity, paranasal sinuses, sink down into the lungs (another variant of staphylococcal pneumonia).
And that is not all!! Staphylococci produce the strongest poisons (toxins), which themselves
It can cause very serious diseases.
One of these toxins (eksfoliatin) affects newborns. The poison acts on the skin, causing
blistering as for burns. This disease is even called the "scalded syndrome
babies. " Associated with toxin and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome, described in 1980 women in the early days application sorbing tampons during menstruation.
The most common toxic staphylococcal disease - food poisoning. Nearly 50% of all
Staphylococcus aureus was isolated toxin - a poison that causes severe diarrhea, vomiting, pain in the
abdomen. Staphylococci proliferate well in many foods, especially like oil
creams, vegetable and meat salads, canned. During the breeding process of toxin accumulates in the food and
namely a toxin and not with the microbe associated disease symptoms in reckless consumer.
Important role played by the stability and microbes and toxins to the preservative salt concentrations, as well as the ability to withstand boiling.
Here are some malevolent creature aureus! The most interesting is that despite the
Numerous enzymes and dangerous toxins, despite the remarkable stability in the foreign
environment, the microbe can not do anything with the immune defenses of healthy people: against every poison
there is an antidote, the system of general and local immunity are capable of neutralizing factors
pathogenicity, to restrain the multiplication of staphylococci, prevent the occurrence of diseases!
On the surface of the skin, mucous membranesnose, throat and vagina, in the intestines, finally, staphylococci can live for years, peacefully coexisting with humans and not causing him any harm. Familiarity with staphylococcus begins immediately after birth - are infected almost all newborns, but most for a few days or weeks of getting rid of the microbe. The nasopharynx aureus has lived in 20% of men, 60% - occasionally, and only one in five has enough strong protection that the carrier microbe is impossible.
Thus, very often aureus is absolutely normal and natural
representative again absolutely normal and natural human microflora. However, since
the potential harm of this neighborhood is obvious, it is not surprising that belong to Staphylococcus
opportunistic bacteria -.. ie, microbes that can cause disease, but only under certain circumstances.
Any caused by staphylococcus medical problems include the occurrence of factors,
reduce the human immune defense. Skin lesions (injuries, splinters, friction of clothes, violation
hygiene) - a prerequisite for local suppurative infections, low immunity due to other
disease, eating disorders, stress, hypovitaminosis - prerequisites for common infections, violation of the rules of cooking and food storage - prerequisites for food poisoning.
But, and this is a very (!), It is important always to distinguish between concepts such as Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal
infection. Detection of Staphylococcus in the absence of actual symptoms of the disease - is not a reason to
immediate rescue and swallowing drugs.
Despite the unambiguous theoretical justicethe above rules, action ... In practice, it often happens with an accuracy up to the contrary. In the milk of healthy lactating women found Staphylococcus aureus (usually all got back to the surface of the skin), and it serves as a pretext to stop feeding! In the analysis of a feces on a dysbacteriosis or throat swab revealed the presence of Staphylococcus, and in the absence of even a hint of an infectious disease, with normal body temperature and general condition of the child undisturbed fed antibiotics! Moreover, staphylococcus often attributed to the disease, in principle, it is not typical, accusing him in constipation, the allergic dermatitis, explaining his presence increased flatulence, vomiting, hiccups, trembling chin, excessive formation of saliva, grunting nose and so on. Etc. . etc.
Again, given the importance of the issue: treat people, not analyzes (general); treat staphylococcal
infection, not aureus (in particular).
Treatment of staphylococcal disease
Treatment of staphylococcal disease - amazinga difficult task, because there is no microbe that can be compared with staph in their ability to develop resistance to antibiotics and other antibacterial agents. The experience of the first use of penicillin has shown its effectiveness is relative to staphylococci. A little more than half a century, and now of such staphylococci can only dream of. Pharmacology synthesize more and more anti-microbial agents, and microbiologists, with no less frequency, find staphylococci, these funds are not sensitive.
The main reason for this phenomenon is not only the staph, but the unnecessarily wide application
antibiotics in situations where without it is possible to do. Paradoxically, even some
staphylococcal disease do not require treatment with antibiotics - for example, food poisoning,
related, as we have said, not with the microbe and its toxins.
Staphylococcus aureus strife. The most dangerous and resistant to many drugs are found in
hospitals. Life there is not easy (and bacteria in particular), but staphylococci, surviving in conditions
continuous use of disinfectants and the mass use of antibiotics -
a serious risk factor, the basis of the so-called nosocomial infections.
Again: treatment of staphylococcal disease - a difficult task, the way to deal with it is long and expensive, but quite real. Specific aureus resistant to all antibacterial agents - a very rare phenomenon. Bacteriological methods allow not only to discover the culprit of the disease, but also to determine its sensitivity to the drug, and then carry out a course of effective therapy. Purulent focus in the respective organs are removed surgical interventions are also used antistaphylococcal plasma immunoglobulins and by which the body ready-made antibodies are introduced. Of great importance is the elimination of triggering factors we have mentioned - those that reduce the immune defenses and determine the fundamental possibility of the occurrence of the disease.
Sadly, transferred staphylococcalinfection does not leave behind a long-lasting immunity. Too large number of possible pathogenic factors. For one aureus toxins in the blood appear antibodies, but after a meeting with other microbes is not predictable, because it may have other toxins, the body had not yet familiar.
Mankind is doomed to live in the neighborhood with staphylococcus. The neighborhood is not the most pleasant, but
tolerant. All that we can in this situation - to avoid conflicts. Support in order to strengthen and mend the fence in time (ie, the immune system..) And to strictly observe the pact of non-aggression - not to throw stones at a neighbor (antibiotics) as long as it does not touch us.