Screening for melanoma
If any education on the skin causes a suspicion of melanoma or skin cancer, it is necessary to conduct a special inspection to confirm or exclude the diagnosis.
At the doctor's
The doctor will ask you about the symptoms of the disease andrisk factors when they first appeared on the skin formation and whether it has changed in size and appearance. You may be asked about contacts with known substances that cause skin cancer, as well as cases of skin cancer in your family.
During the examination, the doctor will determine the size, shape, color and condition of the tissues around the formation of the skin. In addition, he will find out whether or soak bleeding from a suspicious formation.
All spots will be studied On examination of the whole body andmoles that may be related to skin cancer. There will be also examined lymph nodes in the inguinal and axillary regions, especially on the neck and near the suspicious fire. Swollen lymph nodes may speak in favor of their defeat cancer.
A skin biopsy or taking a small area
Biopsy - taking a small portion of ita cloth for subsequent detailed examination under a microscope. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia in an outpatient setting. Skin biopsy - a very important study, because it only allows you to determine exactly what is sick patient, as well as to distinguish benign from malignant tissue degeneration
If the doctor has suspicions against melanoma, it is necessary to investigate a suspicious skin - to perform a skin biopsy.
All material after a skin biopsy is examined under a microscope technician. When performing a biopsy can use a type of anesthesia. If you suspect a melanoma removed all of the tumor.
After local anesthesia the doctor bladesurgical scraping of the knife makes with the upper layers of the skin. This method is useful for biopsy diagnosis of many types of skin diseases and for the treatment of benign moles. However, this method is not recommended in cases of suspected melanoma, since it can penetrate deeply into the skin.
Diagnosis of metastatic melanoma
Some melanomas spread very quickly,and the patient may be large tumor nodules in the lymph nodes, lung, brain, gastrointestinal tract or liver, while the primary focus is small in size.
When such an extension can be on melanomamistaken for other tumors, for example, metastatic melanoma, lung can be mistaken for primary lung cancer. It is important to establish an accurate diagnosis as well as treatment of various types of tumors is significantly different.
Methods for detection of metastases
Fine-needle aspiration biopsy. With this method, a needle biopsy uses a thinwith a syringe. This is taken a small piece of the tumor. This method is not applicable when a suspicious mole, but it is usually used for the study of lymph nodes located near the melanoma to accept their defeat. In some cases, the puncture lungs or liver are used computed tomography.
Surgical biopsy of the lymph nodes. This method is used for removal of the enlargedlymph nodes. The procedure is usually performed under local anesthesia. The method is used when there is suspicion of lymph node lesion, and fine-needle biopsy does not reveal metastases.
Marking sentinel lymph node biopsy and. This method is a new and promising. Sentinel lymph nodes are called because they are affected in the first place.
Sometimes, for the marking of such lymph nodesbefore surgery in melanoma injected a small amount of a radioactive substance and harmless paint. An hour later, the surgeon makes a small incision on the lymph node and the color and the accumulation of radioactive judges the state of the lymph node. Suspicious node is removed for microscopic examination. In case of metastatic lymph nodes are removed the remaining art. If the sentinel lymph nodes contain tumor cells, the operation to remove other lymph nodes not shown.
In the case where large lymph node, then the fine needle biopsy or surgical.
X-ray and other methods of research
Chest study cells is used to detect melanoma metastases in the lungs.
Computed tomography (CT). With the help of X-rays obtained stratifiedbody image by rotating the device around you. The method allows to identify melanoma metastases in other organs such as the liver. CT method can be used for targeted biopsy for suspected metastases. In this case, the needle is inserted into a tumor under the control of computer tomography, and the resulting material was sent for analysis.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This method uses radio waves and strongmagnets instead of x-rays. Possible to obtain images in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Sometimes the study of contrast agents are used. Magnetic resonance imaging is especially useful in the study of the brain and spinal cord.
Positron emission tomography (PET). When this method is used glucose whichIt contains a radioactive substance. A special camera detects the radioactivity. Tumor cells absorb a large amount of radioactive glucose due to increased metabolism. The method is used when there is suspicion of distribution process, but does not know the location of metastases. With this method, we study the whole body.
Scanning with radioactive materials. In this procedure, the vein is introduced into the radioactive substance in very low doses. Then, a special camera evaluates the activity throughout the body. If the melanoma has spread to the bones or liver, then this method will be determined.