What is the risk factor
risk factor - This is what increases the likelihood ofcancer. There are various risk factors for different types of cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer, oral cavity, throat, bladder, kidney and other organs. However, the presence of risk factors and even more of these factors does not mean that this person will arise disease.
The main risk factors for melanoma include:
Nevi (moles) are benign melanotic tumors. Nevi are usually absent at birth but begin to appear in children and adolescents. Some types of nevi predispose to the development of melanoma.
The presence of dysplastic nevi, or atypicalmoles increases the risk of melanoma. Dysplastic nevi like ordinary moles, but may resemble melanoma. They may be located at places unprotected from the sun, as well as in closed areas of the body, such as the buttocks or the scalp. These nevi tend to be more than ordinary moles. Some people have dysplastic nevi can be multiple.
Dysplastic nevi often familydisease. If your family has a family with dysplastic nevi, then you have a 50% chance of developing this disease. If you have one or more dysplastic nevi, as well as at least two close relatives who have had melanoma, the risk of developing melanoma is increased by 50% or more. The risk of melanoma throughout life is 6-10% in patients with dysplastic nevus, depending on age, family history, the number of dysplastic nevi, and other factors.
Nedisplasticheskie and non-congenital nevi rarely turn into melanoma. However, in people with multiple moles and moles larger sizes increased risk of melanoma.
White skin, freckles and blond hair. The risk of melanoma is 20 times higher than among white peopleCompared to African Americans. This is due to the fact that the skin has a protective effect pigment. Do white people with red or blond hair and white skin, where there are freckles, and that quickly burns in the sun, the risk of developing melanoma is particularly elevated. Blue eyes and increase the risk of melanoma. Any person, regardless of color, melanoma can occur, especially on the palms, feet, under the nails, in the mouth and in the internal organs.
Family history. Increased risk of melanoma if oneor more close relatives (mother, father, brother, sister, child) suffered from melanoma. Depending on the number of affected relatives the risk can be increased up to 8 times compared to people without a family history. 10% of patients with melanoma have a family history of the disease. In 20-40% of families with a high incidence of melanoma found the gene mutation responsible for the development of melanoma.
Immunosuppression. People receiving drugs that suppress the immune system, such as transplant organs, are at increased risk of developing melanoma.
Excessive exposure to ultravioletradiation and sunburn. ain source of UV radiation is sunlight. UV lamps and booths are another source. People receiving excessive exposure to light from these sources have an increased risk of skin cancer, including melanoma. The amount of UV exposure depends on the intensity of light, exposure time, and the use of protective clothing and screen.
If you have had severe burns with blisters,especially in childhood or adolescence, then you have increased risk of melanoma. Short-term high-impact more dangerous for the development of melanoma than the low dose repeated exposure, even if the total dose of ultraviolet radiation is the same.
Age. Nearly half of all melanomas diagnosed in personsolder than 50 years. However, melanoma can also occur in younger patients (20-30 years). In fact, melanoma is one of the most common tumors in men younger than 30 years. Melanoma in people with a family history develops at a younger age.
Floor. Men often suffer from melanoma than women. The probability of developing melanoma in men over a lifetime is 1 in 57, and for women - 1 to 81.
Xeroderma pigmentosum. Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare inheriteda disease resulting from deficiency of the enzyme, which restores the damaged DNA. People suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum, there is a high risk of melanoma, non-melanoma and skin cancers. Since people with xeroderma pigmentosum are less able to repair DNA damage caused by sunlight, they may develop a tumor in the open areas of skin exposed to sunlight. These facts help explain the relationship between sunlight and skin cancer.
The past history of melanoma. A patient who has had melanoma, there is an increased risk for new melanoma.
DNA is the genetic material in ourcells. It transmits the genetic information to the next generation, making, for example, children look like their parents. Besides information on hair color, facial features and other aspects of appearance, DNA also contains information for the cells of how it to grow and how to perform the necessary life activities.
Ultraviolet radiation can damage DNA. Most melanomas are disorders in the chromosomes, where DNA is located. This damage makes DNA less able to control the growth and division of cells. In some cases this leads to the top of cancer. Much of the UV radiation comes from sunlight, but some - from artificial sources such as UV booths. Some of these effects may occur over several years before the emergence of cancer. However, the tumor develops as a result of actions that took place many years ago. Children and young adults often get a lot of intense sun exposure, which may not manifest itself for many years and even decades.
There is an ongoing studycorrelation between DNA and melanoma. It was found that the DNA of certain genes is often damaged in melanoma cells. Most of these changes are inherited DNA, and may be a result of exposure to sunlight. There are opinions that some people are able to repair damaged DNA better than others, and they have less chance of developing melanoma. Understanding the causes of changes in the DNA, leading to the appearance of melanoma, it will be possible to use gene therapy to recover any DNA damage.
Some changes may melanomas DNAinherited. Inheritance of some mutant genes from one parent can increase the risk of developing melanoma. Currently, research is underway to identify the genes altered by a blood test.
Although the majority of nevi (moles) neverconverted to melanoma, it happens in some cases. Some changes in benign nevus cells can lead to their transformation into melanoma cells. However, it is not known exactly why some moles become cancerous, and why the presence of multiple moles (nevi) or atypical moles increases the risk of melanoma.
Recommendations for prevention of melanoma
The most important way to reduce the risk of melanoma is to reduce the residence time under intense sunlight.
To do this, we can recommend the following:
Stay in the shade. The simplest and most effective waylimiting exposure to UV rays is minimal time spent outdoors under sunlight. This is particularly important from 10 am to 4 pm, when the action of ultraviolet rays is most pronounced. Remember that the sun's rays can reflect off water, clouds, sand, cement and snow.
Protect skin with clothing. You can protect a large part of the skin with clothing, such as shirts with long sleeves and a hat with a wide brim. The dense fabric of dark color usually well provides the best protection of the skin.
The use of protective creams. Use protective creams, especially in thoseWhen sunlight is intense. Use creams, even on overcast and cloudy days because UV rays penetrate through clouds and fog.
Sunscreens should be applied tounprotected areas of skin 20-30 minutes before going out, so that the skin has absorbed the cream. Apply a thick layer on the face, ears, arms, legs and neck. Remember that the skin treatment should be repeated every 2 hours. It is also recommended to handle his lips.
Barrier creams and funds are not used forso that you more time in the sun. These tools do not prevent melanoma, they only reduce the intensity of UV rays.
Wearing sunglasses. Sunglasses at 99-100% protect the eyes and the skin around them from ultraviolet rays.
Avoid other sources of UVradiation. The use of UV lamps is dangerous to health, as their light can damage the skin, so their use is not recommended. Such lamps increases the risk of melanoma.
Protecting children from the sun. Children deserve special attention as theyspend a lot of time outdoors and burn quickly in the sun. Older children should be aware of the dangers of prolonged exposure to the sun and the possibility of their melanoma. In mountainous areas and in areas with active solar influence the use of protective equipment you and your children should become a habit.
Detect changes of moles (nevi) andremoval. The presence of certain kinds of moles (nevi) is accompanied by an increased risk of melanoma. Depending on the appearance of these moles doctor may recommend careful monitoring of their removal or when suspected malignant degeneration. Routine removal of multiple mole melanoma as prophylaxis is not recommended. If you have multiple moles recommended regular monitoring by a dermatologist, and monthly self-examination. In the event of unusual moles or changes urgently needed to see a specialist.
Genetic counseling. If several members of your family has a melanoma, if you have had multiple melanoma or if you have had melanoma in younger age or dysplastic nevi, you may be a mutation (change) gene. In this connection it is necessary genetic counseling. In some families with a high incidence of melanomas detected CDKN2A mutation.