Treatment of Multiple Myeloma


Factors affecting the development of multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a malignant tumor and a kind arises from plasma of blood cells. Normally, these cells play an important role in immune (protective) human system.

There are several factors that can influence the appearance of multiple myeloma. Here are some of them:
  • age;
  • exposure to radiation;
  • family history.
Most patients with multiple myeloma only risk factor was age.

Thus, the exact cause ofmultiple myeloma is unknown, but it is possible that this is a cause of changes in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which is responsible for the functioning of the cell.
In such case, changes in the DNA of plasma cells may become neoplastic and lead to the development of multiple myeloma.

Symptoms of multiple myeloma

In some patients with multiple myeloma have no symptoms. If they arise, are varied.

So, we list some of the symptoms of multiple myeloma.

  • Pain in the bones. Neoplastic processes in the bones leads to osteoporosis (the appearance of discharge areas of bone tissue), which is accompanied by pain and increases the probability of fracture with minimal load. Pain in the spine, pelvis and head - common in patients with multiple myeloma.
  • Symptoms from the kidneys. Excess production myeloma cells protein accompanied by damage to the kidneys, making it difficult to conclude from the salt body fluids and waste products.
  • Infection. Patients with multiple myeloma is 15 times more likely to suffer infectious diseases, and most often they develop pneumonia.

About modern methods of treatment of multiple myeloma

Treatment of Multiple MyelomaModern medicine uses the following methods for the treatment of multiple myeloma:

  • Chemotherapy. Selection antineoplastic drugs depends on the stage of the disease, age of the patient, renal function. During chemotherapy, possible side effects and complications: alopecia, ulcers in the mouth, increased susceptibility to infection, bleeding, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. After completion of treatment side effects are listed.
  • Radiation therapy. Myeloma bone disease, in particular vertebrae may lead to compression of the spinal cord and nerves. At the same time develop numbness and weakness of the lower limbs, pain, dysfunction of the bladder and bowel. In this case, immediate action is necessary, which can is to appoint a radiation therapy or surgery.
  • Surgical treatment is rarely used in patientsmultiple myeloma, except for the above emergency. In some patients, surgery may be required for the fixation or strengthening of bones.
  • Biotherapy (Immunotherapy). Interferon inhibits the growth of myeloma cells and can be used in combination with chemotherapy. This treatment prolongs remission in myeloma patients.
  • Transplantation of bone marrow or stemcells used in the case of high-dose chemotherapy. This can be used as a bone marrow or stem cells from the patient (autologous transplant) or a donor (allogeneic transplant).
  • Plasmapheresis. In this procedure, blood is purified from antibodies which are produced in excess myeloma cells.

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