Foot - a body with a very complex anatomy. On it lies a rather large load. She is involved in the act of walking and therefore its status is reflected on our walk.
Anatomically in the stack are the following areas:
The rear surface
Side surfaces: medial and lateral.
Furthermore, it stands plantar surface of the foot and back.
The sole of the foot - the most important part of the plancorrect gait and condition of the foot joints. The soles are allocated codes of: longitudinal and transverse. The internal longitudinal arch of the foot has a supporting structure:
- long and short plantar ligaments,
- the plantar fascia
- calcaneal-navicular ligament.
Violation of the functions of these supporting componentsIt leads to pathologies such as flatfoot. These structures are influenced by several factors weakened and no longer withstand the load that which bears the stop.
Bone "skeleton" of the foot consists of 26 bones. In the skeleton of the foot is released several departments: it tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges.
Tarsus - a foot office, which is locatedbetween the metatarsus and the ankle joint. It includes the following bones: talus, heel, navicular, the lateral, intermediate and medial cuneiform bones and the cuboid. The metatarsal bones - the five bones that belong to the tubular bones.
Phalanx - Short tubular bones, of whichformed. Thumb phalanx form two remaining fingers are formed by three phalanges. Among the major joints of the foot, it is dominated by the ankle. It is formed by the tibia tibia and the talus of the foot. The rest are small joints (metatarsophalangeal, interphalangeal and tarsal joints).
metatarsal joints bear most of the load together with the calcaneus.
calcaneus imeet some feature - at its solesurface can be formed sometimes spinous build-up - "heel spurs". In terms of pathology is important to note the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The most common in this area are marked arthrosis (degenerative joint disease).
Also, the area of the head of the first metatarsalBone plays an important role in the occurrence of valgus deformity of the big toe (hallux valgus). This is manifested by the fact that the bone outgrowth formed on the side surface of the head of the bone. He squeezes in this place, soft tissue, and also causes the joint deformities, which is manifested by pain and impaired gait.
Ligaments and tendons
The bones of the foot are connected to each other byligaments that strengthen the joints. The most important ligament in the foot is the deltoid ligament. It is located on the inner (medial) surface of the foot and connects the tibia, the talus and calcaneus. A very important role plays the ligaments in supporting the arches of the foot.
foot Bundles They are often subjected to trauma: tears and anguish. Note that quite often, the term "tension" can not be attributed to the ligaments, as ligaments are quite solid structure. Therefore, when there is usually traumatizing them a break or, more often - a partial tear.
Tendons - Is, whereby the muscles are attached tobones. In its structurally they resemble bundles. And the ligaments and tendons are formed from collagen fibers, which are as it were woven into a rope. This provides them with a certain strength and elasticity.
The most famous is the tendon on the foot Achilles tendon. It is attached to the heel bone and is a continuation of the gastrocnemius muscle. It is involved in flexion of the foot.
The bones of the foot, connecting with each other, formjoint. Each joint is surrounded by a joint capsule, which strengthens ligaments. From inside the joint cavity is covered by synovial membrane. When injury of large joints - in this case the ankle - blood may accumulate in its cavity. Formed hemarthrosis.
The muscles of the foot
During the movement of all these structures of the footmuscles respond. The muscles of the foot distinguish long and short. Long muscles originate from the bones of the lower leg, with its upper part. Short muscles also begin to lower the lower leg sections.
All the muscles of the foot are divided into flexors, extensors, and intercostals muscles and worm-like. According to its location, they are divided on the rear muscles of the foot and the sole of the muscles.
The muscles of the foot are driven by nerves. Among the nerves that are responsible for the movement of the foot - tibial and deep peroneal. For the sensitivity of the skin on the foot correspond to superficial peroneal nerve and cutaneous branches of the above two nerves.
The blood supply of the foot by usingtwo arteries: anterior and posterior tibial. Anterior tibial artery forms on the rear of the foot so-called arterial arc. Posterior tibial artery is on the sole of the foot, and there divides into two branches.
Suggested as a cloth all of the nutrients and oxygenand taking away toxins and carbon dioxide, the blood flows away from the foot of two veins: large and small saphenous. A large subcutaneous Vienna is on the inside of the foot, and small - on the outside.