What makes a woman in labor, when the newborn takeson your hands? Hugs, kisses and ... considers fingers. So did our great-grandmother, grandmother and we continue to do, today's moms. Normally, a baby on each arm and leg - on five fingers. Normally, but it is not so. Currently, more than 10% of children have a congenital fusion of one or more fingers - syndactyly. What is the reason and what to do if your child was in that number?
Syndactyly in Greek means"Fingers together» (syndactylia: syn - together, dactylos - finger). This congenital complete or incomplete fusion of the fingers of the hands or feet as a result of their separation will not come in the process of embryonic development in violation of the cosmetic and functional state. The share of this disease accounts for more than 50% of all congenital anomalies of the hands and feet. Most often there III and IV concretion fingers less II-III-IV-V, II-III and IV fingers. Quite often this is happening simultaneously on both hands or feet - bilateral syndactyly. In these cases, fusion of the fingers tends to be symmetrical.
Depending on the degree of tissue adhesions are several types of syndactyly:
Syndactyly can be either independentvice, and the result of hereditary factors. If someone from the next of kin (to the second degree) was a fusion of the fingers - the likelihood of having a child with the same problem is greatly increased. In this case, even when planning a pregnancy, expectant parents should visit genetics. After special tests the doctor will make an individual scheme of preparation and conduct of pregnancy, in order to minimize the risk of the genetic inheritance of this vice.
In the absence of this factor often syndactylyall is the result of failures in the process of fetal development. They can occur as a result of a variety of toxic substances in the mother's body during pregnancy: medication, nicotine, alcohol, unfavorable environmental conditions, work in hazardous environments.
The notorious example - the consequences of actionsthe drug thalidomide, which encouraged American women to apply for the relief of symptoms of early toxicity. It was later revealed that this drug often leads to birth defects limbs of the child. As a result of the country in a relatively short period of time to light a host of children with such problems. It is known that the fusion of the fingers is due to the separation unaccrued their formation (7-8-th week of fetal development).
Therefore, in this period, the expectant mother shouldtry the maximum to eliminate the impact of unfavorable factors. Also be aware that the toxic substances can accumulate in the body and even the elimination of a negative factor for a long time are able to remind yourself. Thus, for example, it found that congenital malformations of limb (including syndactyly) is much more common in women who have more than 5 years working in the chemical industry.
If fusion is not all over, and violations of the fingers no growth, then there is a cosmetic defect is minimal, it is possible to refrain from surgery.
The problem requires surgery in the following cases:
- requiring the removal of a cosmetic defect,
- in the absence or limitation of differentiated movements of fingers, which is a big obstacle for the normal harmonious, including the child's intellectual development,
- if a child's growth is marked dysplasia jointed fingers.
Syndactyly mild operate asTypically, after 2 years. When complex forms of congenital syndactyly is recommended to start treatment as early as 5-12 months - to prevent the progression of existing and development of secondary deformities. Postoperatively, the limb is fixed plaster splint for about 1 month.
After removal of sutures (14-16 day) appointedcomplex restorative treatment, including a massage brushes, electrical stimulation flexor and extensor fingers, phonophoresis with Lydasum on postoperative scars, ozokerite applications. With timely and properly conducted surgery syndactyly completely eliminate more than 80% of cases, while in the remaining 20% goes syndactyly negative impact on the growth and development of the child's limbs.
Syndactyly often is a secondary defect andaccompanied by other disorders of skeletal development. Up to 60% of children with syndactyly have concomitant congenital abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system. Therefore, if a child is present, any of the forms of syndactyly (even the lightest), it is necessary as soon as possible to carry out a comprehensive examination to exclude the presence of other anomalies.