our site Please note that prior to collectionurine is not necessary to restrict your diet, but you should pay attention to the intake of sweets, products bright color, moderate drinking and dining room curative mineral water is not much to overload yourself, doing sports. During menstruation, urine can not pass.
For a general analysis of the need all the serving of morning urineafter a careful toilet of genitals was held. Urine fill a clean container, which should be no traces of detergents and disinfectants. The preferred use special disposable container, which can be purchased at the pharmacy.
In order to avoid contact with the sampleelements of inflammation in the urethra and vulva, you first need to release a small amount of urine, and only then collect in a container, it must be serving. To conduct the study, as a rule, enough about 100 ml of urine.
In the laboratory, evaluated the general properties of urine, its physical and chemical properties and morphological structure of the precipitate.
General characteristics of urine
Color, transparency and smell of urine are determined by its general characteristics.
Colour Healthy human urine is usually straw-colored. It can be reddish due to the presence of hemoglobin or brown, due to bile pigments. To clarify the usually agitated sample - yellow foam accurately indicates that the urine contains bile pigments. The milky white color indicates the presence of fat cells in the urine, pus or inorganic phosphorus. Polyuria makes the urine very light and slightly colored.
Smell It is not important in the diagnosis. Fresh urine is usually odorless. "Apple" scent signals that in the urine of patients with diabetes mellitus were human ketone bodies.
Transparency. The urine of a healthy person transparent becauseall the substances are dissolved. If the urine at the time of discharge is already turbid, indicating the contents of a large number of cellular elements, salts, fat and bacteria.
Physical and chemical properties of urine
For patients with diabetes identifieda special degree of proteinuria - microalbuminuria (make conclusions on the number of microalbumin in the urine). Therefore, for the highest level of diabetics norm protein concentration in urine is considered to 0.0002 g / l 0.0003 g / day.
Glucose in urine. Common methods of investigation glucose in the urinehealthy people can not be detected. It can be detected under the influence of certain medicines, with stress and consumption of excessive amounts of dietary carbohydrates. In these cases, the amount of glucose in urine is greater than "renal threshold" - 9.99 mmol / L.
Glycosuria (appearance of glucose in the urine) indicateson the disruption of a number of endocrine organs. This may be the disease of the pancreas or thyroid glands, such as diabetes or hyperthyroidism respectively.
Ketone bodies. Most often, ketone bodies are found in the urine of patients with severe diabetesSometimes at a craniocerebral trauma,hemorrhage into the brain, as well as diet, which contains a small amount of carbohydrates. The result of the presence of ketone bodies in urine expressed semiquantitative method: weakly positive reaction (+) positive reaction (++) and (+++), strongly positive (++++).
The content of pigments in urine.
Bilirubin in healthy subjects in the urine is detected, its presence can be determined in the case of jaundice and hepatic inflammation.
Urobilin. In svezhevypuschennoy urine contains urobilinogen, which over time turns into urobilin. Norma urobilin in the urine of a healthy person per day is not more than 6 mg.
urobilinuria (Urobilin decrease in concentration in the urine), which can range from slightly positive (+) to strongly positive (+++), occurs when:
- there are acute and chronic inflammation of the liver;
- there is blockage of the biliary tract stones, tumors or parasites;
- expressed hemolysis - the massive destruction of red blood cells and hemolytic anemia.
Morphological analysis of urine sediment
The precipitate can be detected blood cells(Leukocytes and erythrocytes), the epithelium of the urinary tract, the sperm, as well as foreign cells (bacterial, fungal, cancer) and salts precipitated. The slight (single) content in the sediment of healthy human urine red blood cells, white blood cells, epithelial cells and bacteria.
When leukocyturia (increased quantitylymphocytes), it makes sense to carry out further examination of the kidneys and urinary tract, as a high probability of infectious and inflammatory processes.
The increased amount of red blood cells and in the presence ofurine hemoglobin termed "hematuria". This suggests inflammation of the urinary system, the possible presence of tumor formation in the kidneys. Hematuria experts are divided into two types:
- gross hematuria - blood in the urine can be seen with the naked eye;
- microhematuria - presence of blood in urine can be confirmed only through a microscope.
If bacteria found in urine, it does notindicates any inflammatory processes. Generally, experts point out the number, whereby and conclude on the status of the genitourinary system.
epithelial cells completely cover the mucousshell urinary channel, this is due to their large concentration in urine during inflammation. Since each of the channel sections certain type epithelium, it can be assumed by the type of cells, where it began inflammation.