Diabetes occurs when the pancreasiron, for reasons unknown to science, stops producing the right amount of insulin. This is the first type of diabetes - insulin-dependent. However, diabetes of the second type is more common - when enough insulin is produced in the body, but insulin activity is very low. The low activity of insulin causes a large amount of adipose tissue, which has a low sensitivity to insulin. It is typical that type 1 diabetes is more often affected by people under 40, and type 2 diabetes is more likely to affect people older than 50 years.
Causes of diabetes is also known exactly. What is clear is that if the parents suffer from diabetes, the child will almost certainly be ill, genetic predisposition plays an important role in the disease of diabetes.
The second factor that causes diabetes is obesity. If you keep track of your weight, it is possible to greatly reduce the risk of developing diabetes.
The third reason - a disease of the pancreas, such as pancreatitisCancer, pancreatic cancer and others.
In addition, our site would like to drawnote that the stress may also be a cause of diabetes - excessive burden on the nervous system can be a trigger for diabetes. Viral infections often cause the development of diabetes, but the virus itself is not important - diabetes factors are added together, and viral infection triggers a disease. Age is also a predisposition to diabetes - the older the person, the higher the chance to get sick.
Of all these factors in each case only one (obesity, heredity) causes of diabetes.
For both types of diabetes is characterized by the followingSymptoms: the patient constantly feel thirsty, drink a lot, but because of frequent urination becomes liquid and dehydrated. Constant hunger and simultaneous weight loss. The man constantly feels fatigue, dizziness, numbness in the arms and legs, leg cramps. Begin problems with vision - a feeling of mist before his eyes. If you are diabetic or sick ARI gets cold, the recovery is much slower and more difficult. Well, the most basic symptom of diabetes is high blood sugar.
Diagnosis of diabetes
After listening to and examining the patient (man complainsthirst, weight loss, numbness of extremities) doctor prescribes two tests. One test to determine the level of blood sugar, and the second - the level of sugar in urine. If diabetes is not present, the sugar in the urine is determined as kidneys keep glucose. But if blood sugar levels increased, the kidneys begin to pass glucose into the urine.
Blood sugar level is defined as follows: on an empty stomach in a patient blood sample is taken. Normally sugar level should not exceed 120 mg% (6.6 mmol / L). Then, the patient is invited to drink 300 ml of water in which is dissolved 75 g of grape sugar. Thereafter, the blood sugar level is determined twice more - an hour after receiving grape sugar, and after another hour. If the fasting blood sugar does not exceed 120 mg%, and two hours after ingestion of sugar in the blood sugar level below 140 mg% - it means negative test, and the patient does not have diabetes. If the fasting blood of the patient over 120mg%, and two hours later sugar level exceeds 200 mg%, it means that a person has diabetes.
Let me remind you that in type 1 diabetes patient suffersby inadequate insulin secretion. The only way to maintain the level of insulin is insulin injections. They are made subcutaneously, and any patient is able to make them yourself. Injections of insulin allows the patient to maintain a normal life, but to consistently satisfactory health status of insulin injections have to do all my life.
There are two types of insulin: short-acting (Actrapid, Humulin R, Insuman Rapid) and medium-duration (Monotard, Protafan, Humulin NPH, Insuman Bazal) The injection schedule and the amount of insulin administered can only be determined by a doctor.
There are two basic schemes of insulin: short-acting insulin (eg Actrapid) before dinner and a long-acting insulin (eg Monotard) before breakfast and before bedtime. The second scheme is characterized in that the average duration of action of the insulin injected just before bedtime, and during the day injections of short-acting insulin.
Usually in the morning the patient introduces himself 40% of the dailydoses of short-acting insulin, 30% of it before lunch and 30% before dinner. The daily dose of insulin is 0.6-1 units / kg. 25% of the daily dose falls on short-acting insulin and 75% on medium-acting insulin.
Since insulin is injected under the skin, slowlyIt enters the blood: its action begins only after 15 minutes, and the maximum blood concentration is reached 40-60 minutes after injection. The basic dosage for the treatment of diabetes is determined by a doctor, but after the training, the patient can independently measure your blood sugar level and change the dose of insulin depending on the meter readings.
our site emphasizes that each patientdiabetes should undergo special training in order to properly control their blood sugar and to be able to rely on their own insulin dose according to glucose. In this case, insulin becomes burdensome, and the patient is able to live a full life: to diversify the diet and exercise.
Type 2 diabetes is much more common. For its successful treatment, the patient is obliged not only to constantly monitor blood sugar levels, but also adhere to a diet and trying to lose weight. The diet in type 2 diabetes is the constant consumption of low-calorie foods rich in fiber. Required exercise: because while charging hard working muscles consume glucose and it allows you to maintain blood sugar levels normal.
If diet and exercise do not providethe desired effect, you have to start medication, which is taking antidiabetic drugs (Glyurenorm). However, physicians have long been convinced that with time a patient with type 2 diabetes still require insulin injections. This is due to the fact that over the years the function of the pancreas and insulin is weakened no longer enough.
To control sugar levels, diabetics will have topurchase a glucometer - a device that allows you to measure blood sugar at any time of the day. This is a small-sized device with a display and a small lancet. A finger is pierced and a drop of blood is taken for analysis. The device not only shows the level of sugar in the blood, but also remembers it. This is very convenient for patients who are able to show the results of glucometry to their doctor. The cost of the meter is from 1500 to 2500 rubles.
Complications of diabetes
If the patient does not care about that constantlymaintain normal blood sugar levels, gradually developing diabetic complications. Patients start to disturb tingling and numbness, coldness and stop violation of the sensitivity. In the future, developing peripheral vascular disease, which can result in gangrene and amputation of limbs. Also striking is the large vessels - developing heart attacks and strokes. If the patient has long been elevated blood sugar, may develop diabetic coma. The essence of this phenomenon lies in the fact that the lack of insulin the cells begin to experience strong demand for energy (enough insulin - a little glucose gets into the blood, and glucose - this is the energy). To give cells energy to the body taken to expend reserves of fat. With a lack of insulin, this process always takes place too rapidly, and a large number of unsplit fat cells goes directly into the blood. Part of the fat cells passing through the liver, is converted into so-called ketone bodies, which are very toxic. This causes the development of coma.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to cure diabetes, but if you constantly control yourself, you can live quite a full life.