schistosomiasis

Content

  • Sources of infection
  • Ways of infection of schistosomiasis
  • The forms of existence
  • Symptoms of schistosomiasis
  • The effects of parasitism in the body
  • Methods of diagnosis of schistosomiasis
  • schistosomiasis Treatment
  • schistosomiasis Prevention



  • Sources of infection

    source
    pathogen invasion (infection) in all types of schistosomiasis is infected
    man, and in Japanese, moreover, domestic and wild animals (cows,
    goats, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, rodents).



    Ways of infection of schistosomiasis

    In the human body, they penetrate when bathing in open water, directly through the skin.



    The forms of existence

    schistosomiasis
    Schistosoma
    (Blood flukes) live and mate in the venous blood. Vital
    pathogen cycle is characterized by change of two owners. The small
    blood vessels of the definitive host - humans and mammals -
    the female lays up to 3,000 eggs per day. The eggs pass into the intestine or
    bladder and faeces or urine output in the environment.
    Schistosoma eggs due to spikes can move independently
    through the vessel walls into the bladder or intestine, and then allocated
    urine or feces. In fresh water from the eggs and get out miracidia
    the body of the intermediate host - a mollusk, specifically for
    of each species of schistosomes, where they are further developed.

    After 4
    weeks after the introduction of the mollusk body tailed mature larvae -
    cercariae. They go into the water, where at the meeting with the definitive host
    introduced through the skin or mucous membranes. In the subcutaneous tissue
    cercariae in turn shistosomuly that fall in blood
    vessels and 20-30 days after reaching maturity. duration
    Schistosoma life in the human body is tens of years.



    Symptoms of schistosomiasis

    • duration of the acute phase - from 2 weeks to 3 months. The introduction of
      cercariae skin sometimes causes a local inflammatory reaction (itching
      bathers). After 3-8 weeks, there is a fever, rash, headache,
      pain, increased itching, appears with asthmatic bronchitis
      component, increased liver, possible encephalitis,
      meningoencephalitis. In the laboratory blood tests and marked leukocytosis
      eosinophilia.
    • specific symptoms of the disease develop into the chronic stage.
      In urinary schistosomiasis in 3-6 months after infection
      there is frequent painful urination, pain occurs
      suprapubic region and perineum, as mucosal
      bladder ulcers are formed. In the later stages of the disease complicated by
      hydronephrosis and pyelonephritis, and also affects the genitals - have
      women is manifested in the form of vaginitis, erosion and cervical polyps, have
      men - in the form epidimita, prostatitis, vesiculitis.
    • while intestinal schistosomiasis Munson main manifestations associated with
      lesion of the distal colon: diarrhea with admixture
      mucus and blood, alternating with constipation, abdominal pain, cramping
      or aching. Japanese resembles intestinal schistosomiasis, but
      more severe.



    The effects of parasitism in the body

    Migration
    shistosomul on the blood and lymphatic vessels and various organs,
    traumatize the tissue and cause their destruction. As a result of damage
    tissues develop inflammatory and proliferative processes, around the eggs,
    linger in the tissues, formed granulomas, which causes a number of severe
    defeats bodies, up to cancer, anemia, caused by
    bleeding from the affected organs - bladder, bowel,
    liver. Schistosoma capable of destroying antibodies and suppress the macrophages,
    which makes the adult practically invulnerable. In this way,
    a host organism infected with Schistosoma remaining becomes
    resistant to re-infection, produced a companion
    immunity.



    Methods of diagnosis of schistosomiasis

    Diagnosis
    are adjusted based on clinical data
    epimidiologicheskogo history, laboratory results.
    The most reliable is the detection of eggs in urine sediment, in the case of
    urinary schistosomiasis. The basis of diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis
    It is the identification of schistosome eggs in feces Munson. In all forms of
    schistosomiasis as a preliminary diagnostic methods used
    immunological tests.



    schistosomiasis Treatment

    Treatment
    carried out under the scheme as a opisthorchiasis. In the acute phase of treatment foundation
    make desensitization and dezontoksikatsiya. Glucocorticoids
    apply only if indicated for severe schistosomiasis.




    schistosomiasis Prevention

    prevention
    It includes a set of actions aimed at early detection and
    treated patients, the destruction of intermediate hosts - molluscs,
    hygienic education of the population. Of great importance is health
    beautification of residential areas. People living or vacationing in
    endemic areas, should be warned of the danger of infection
    when bathing in fresh water, walk barefoot on the shore
    grass. Prevention of this disease is a ban on swimming
    in natural water bodies of tropical countries, as the infection is 100%
    cases there is even easy to walk barefoot through the water.

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