Sources of infection
pathogen invasion (infection) in all types of schistosomiasis is infected
man, and in Japanese, moreover, domestic and wild animals (cows,
goats, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, rodents).
Ways of infection of schistosomiasis
In the human body, they penetrate when bathing in open water, directly through the skin.
The forms of existence
(Blood flukes) live and mate in the venous blood. Vital
pathogen cycle is characterized by change of two owners. The small
blood vessels of the definitive host - humans and mammals -
the female lays up to 3,000 eggs per day. The eggs pass into the intestine or
bladder and faeces or urine output in the environment.
Schistosoma eggs due to spikes can move independently
through the vessel walls into the bladder or intestine, and then allocated
urine or feces. In fresh water from the eggs and get out miracidia
the body of the intermediate host - a mollusk, specifically for
of each species of schistosomes, where they are further developed.
weeks after the introduction of the mollusk body tailed mature larvae -
cercariae. They go into the water, where at the meeting with the definitive host
introduced through the skin or mucous membranes. In the subcutaneous tissue
cercariae in turn shistosomuly that fall in blood
vessels and 20-30 days after reaching maturity. duration
Schistosoma life in the human body is tens of years.
Symptoms of schistosomiasis
- duration of the acute phase - from 2 weeks to 3 months. The introduction of
cercariae skin sometimes causes a local inflammatory reaction (itching
bathers). After 3-8 weeks, there is a fever, rash, headache,
pain, increased itching, appears with asthmatic bronchitis
component, increased liver, possible encephalitis,
meningoencephalitis. In the laboratory blood tests and marked leukocytosis
- specific symptoms of the disease develop into the chronic stage.
In urinary schistosomiasis in 3-6 months after infection
there is frequent painful urination, pain occurs
suprapubic region and perineum, as mucosal
bladder ulcers are formed. In the later stages of the disease complicated by
hydronephrosis and pyelonephritis, and also affects the genitals - have
women is manifested in the form of vaginitis, erosion and cervical polyps, have
men - in the form epidimita, prostatitis, vesiculitis.
while intestinal schistosomiasis Munson main manifestations associated with
lesion of the distal colon: diarrhea with admixture
mucus and blood, alternating with constipation, abdominal pain, cramping
or aching. Japanese resembles intestinal schistosomiasis, but
The effects of parasitism in the body
shistosomul on the blood and lymphatic vessels and various organs,
traumatize the tissue and cause their destruction. As a result of damage
tissues develop inflammatory and proliferative processes, around the eggs,
linger in the tissues, formed granulomas, which causes a number of severe
defeats bodies, up to cancer, anemia, caused by
bleeding from the affected organs - bladder, bowel,
liver. Schistosoma capable of destroying antibodies and suppress the macrophages,
which makes the adult practically invulnerable. In this way,
a host organism infected with Schistosoma remaining becomes
resistant to re-infection, produced a companion
Methods of diagnosis of schistosomiasis
are adjusted based on clinical data
epimidiologicheskogo history, laboratory results.
The most reliable is the detection of eggs in urine sediment, in the case of
urinary schistosomiasis. The basis of diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis
It is the identification of schistosome eggs in feces Munson. In all forms of
schistosomiasis as a preliminary diagnostic methods used
carried out under the scheme as a opisthorchiasis. In the acute phase of treatment foundation
make desensitization and dezontoksikatsiya. Glucocorticoids
apply only if indicated for severe schistosomiasis.
It includes a set of actions aimed at early detection and
treated patients, the destruction of intermediate hosts - molluscs,
hygienic education of the population. Of great importance is health
beautification of residential areas. People living or vacationing in
endemic areas, should be warned of the danger of infection
when bathing in fresh water, walk barefoot on the shore
grass. Prevention of this disease is a ban on swimming
in natural water bodies of tropical countries, as the infection is 100%
cases there is even easy to walk barefoot through the water.