Hookworm - intestinal worms (nematodes), parasitic disease, occurring with
allergic skin lesions, respiratory (early stage), the gastrointestinal tract, and iron deficiency anemia (late phase).
Pathogens - Ancylostoma duodenale, less Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma braziliense.
widespread. Necator americanus recorded in America
Asia and Africa; Ancylostoma duodenale - in Japan, China, India, Central
Asia, the Mediterranean Basin and the Caucasus. Foci of infection may be formed in coal mines and mining at high
ambient temperature, humidity and poor sanitary conditions.
Mechanisms of infection - fecal-oral (penetration mechanism of the pathogen from the patient's intestine into the mouth of another human body) and a contact (for example, through any common object).
introduced through the skin (for example, when working with the soil through the skin,
walking barefoot, etc.). After penetration, they migrate through
blood and lymphatic vessels in the lung capillaries. Hence larvae
penetrate into the respiratory tract, reaching the throat and swallowed. Sick
not dangerous to others because at the time of discharge from the body's eggs are not infectious.
How is the disease
period - 40-60 days. In most cases, small number of parasites,
and the disease is asymptomatic. Symptoms of more severe forms
It depends on the way of penetration into the body of the parasite. With the penetration of
through the skin characterized by pruritic papules vezikulёznye (like rash varicella) pustular (abdominal formation with purulent contents) and erythematous (redness of the skin), rash on the background of pale skin (usually on the legs);
persist for several months. Massive invasion (infection) may
lead to edema of the limbs. When the larvae migrate through the respiratory
way possible bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy.
The symptoms of lesions of the gastrointestinal tract:
heartburn, vomiting, epigastric pain. Symptoms of central nervous system;
lethargy, retarded mental and physical development. Most
characteristic manifestation - hypochromic iron deficiency anemia (anemia, in which there is a decrease in hemoglobin in red blood cells) and hypoalbuminemia (decrease in albumin in
Serum) due to chronic blood loss. In the most severe
cases, the number of red blood cells is reduced to 1012l and Hb content
- Up to 100 g / l.
The research method - detection of parasite eggs in feces.
How to treat hookworm
- When anemia - iron preparations; in severe cases - a blood transfusion
- Causal (antimicrobial) therapy
- Mebendazole 100mg for 2 p / day for 3 days. Contraindicated during pregnancy
- Pyrantel pamoate 11 mg / kg p 1 / d (up to 1 g) for 3 days (Necator americanus) or once (for Ancylostoma duodenale). Contraindicated during pregnancy.