From the history of suicide ...
Every day on the planet
voluntarily leave the life of tens of thousands of people. Psychologists ascribe
this step depression, relatives and friends are looking for explanations in the household
problems blame specific individuals - say, brought the poor man. how
Whatever it was, but the illness, accidents, murders carry much
less lives than suicide. These are the realities.
it is not known when a person has committed suicide first, but research
anthropologists helped to know what to deprive themselves of life, humanity
I learned quite a long time. In some communities, and nations suicide
it was considered a kind of "personal matter", some - there were religious
rites and cults associated with suicide, in other suicide
It was taboo, and all attempts to brutally punished. But, anyway,
Suicide is present in every culture.
At the time, the struggle for life has been difficult, had to bring in
sacrifice people. In lean years tribes rid of the sick and
infirm. They are, when the time came, voluntarily doomed himself
death. For example, in the tradition of Eskimo elders went to the tundra and there
freezing. In Japan, older parents are often asked to include their children in
the mountains. At the Visigoths existed "rock ancestors" with which the old men
In ancient Greece gave the world democracy, the right to voluntarily leave
the world provide citizens with only a few cases. process
suicide can choose the one whom the law sentenced to death, and Socrates,
drunk the poison was no exception. Suicide committed without
permission of the authorities severely condemned and punished by the posthumous disgrace - in
Athens and Thebes in suicide dissected out and buried separately. AT
major Greek cities stored power supply of hemlock
(A potent poison). In accordance with the law: "Let those who do not
want to live longer, to present its reasons and the Areopagus, having received
resolution, leaving the life. " The "Digest" Justinian, being
classic arch of Roman law, suicide is "no reason"
He condemned as "the one who does not spare himself, and will not spare the other."
When Emperor (Tarquini Trisken) crucified corpses of suicide or
gave to be devoured by wild beasts. In ancient Carthage women
thwarted suicide threat after their death to expose bare
the body on public display. The Jews, too, belonged to the suicide
negatively. The Talmud attempted suicide is considered as
crime, subject to trial and punishment.
With the advent of Christianity, the Church took tight attack on
Suicide as a phenomenon. In Europe, it started a real war against
suicide. In the "canon" of the English King Edward XI suicide
equated to robbers and thieves. In Denmark, it was forbidden to make
Suicide body through the door - for this purpose used window, then
The body burns, which should symbolize the eternal soul burning in hell
fire. In Bordeaux - suicide hung by their feet and put on public
Review in Abbervile - dragged face down on a mat on the street. AT
the laws of St. Louis (13th century) property confiscated suicide,
if it was a gentleman - his coat of arms broken, destroyed the castle, all
the rest becomes the property of the Treasury. Most suicides were buried on
crossroads, scoring in the heart of a stake, since
believed their souls, finding reassurance in heaven, we roamed the earth,
scaring the living. Russia in this sense is not very different from Europe -
Naval article numbers of Peter I was told: "if someone kills himself,
the dead body, tied to a horse, dragged through the streets by the feet
hang, so despite the fact other such lawlessness on a fix
We did not dare. " Naturally, under such strict control
state the number of suicides have been extremely low.
But over time, the laws penalizing suicide, steel
canceled. The first did France during the French Revolution.
In America, in 1881 the state legislature of New York determined period of 20
years for those whose suicide attempt was unsuccessful. The most stringent in the
this issue was the British - previously under English law, in the case of
a failed suicide, the state bring it started to end.
A criminal offense suicide ceased to be considered in
The UK in 1961.
So, what we have now. The picture, I must say not quite
comforting. According to the World Health Organization, each
year in the world commit suicide around 500 000 people. But conclusions
sociologists - the official statistics of suicides significantly different
by real numbers (estimates vary in 2 - 4 fold), because it
fall only clear-cut cases. Also, no one recorded any cases
unsuccessful attempts to exit from life, which is 7-10 times greater.
For example, in Ukraine from suicide kills more people than killers. But
appalling and alarming that in the last decade, the number
Suicide among young people has increased by 3 times. An attempt to escape their lives
It makes every twentieth teenager. The main reasons: failure in school,
conflicts with parents and peers, fear of the future,
loneliness. But the number of completed suicides among men is 4 times
Women exceed. On the other hand - a woman trying to commit suicide
4 times more often than men. The explanation of this fact is that women
significantly more likely to think about how their body will look after
death, and choose more "safe" methods which do not lead to
From seasons suicide often choose the summer and spring. It is believed
disease that suicide is depression. Therefore, the problem of suicide - it is a problem of depression. And watch the most problematic - this morning and afternoon. By
Statistically, married consisting commit suicide less often than
unmarried or divorced. Large rate of suicide among people
lost their partner - they commit suicide three times more likely than family.
Of the 83 ways to commit suicide, the majority chooses hanging, for
followed by poisoning. About 50% of people leave suicide notes.
What is striking is that the standard of living and the number of suicides do not involve
together - as one of the most advanced and wealthy countries of Europe -
Sweden for many years, is one of the leaders in the number of
With regard to suicide in general, there are some myths:
- Suicides committed mentally abnormal people. But
studies have shown that 80 - 85% of suicides were quite healthy people.
- Suicide can not be prevented. But during the crisis -
a temporary phenomenon, and at that moment the person needs mental
warmth, care and support. After receiving this, people often refuse
- That there is the type of people who are prone to suicide. But it all depends
only from its situation and personal evaluation. As there are no
signs that would indicate why the person decided to
- The man before her suicide will talk about it, but the surrounding
They perceive it as a joke. In most cases, if you do not take into
affective suicide note, the man always warn others
about their intentions.
- The decision about suicide comes suddenly, without prior
training. But analysis showed that suicidal crisis can last
several weeks, even months.
- If a person has committed a suicide attempt, he never
repeat it again. In fact, if a person makes an attempt, the
the risk of re-try is very high. The highest probability in the first 1
- 2 months.
- The inclination to suicide is hereditary. This statement has not been proved by anyone else.
- Reducing the level of suicides, contribute articles to the media,
telling about the how and why it was committed suicide. But this
It does not meet the reality.
- Suicide can be prevented if people are loaded with work. This is not true.
- Drinking alcohol helps relieve suicidal experience. But
often it causes the opposite effect: increased anxiety, aggravated
conflicts, thus contributing to suicide.
- Voluntary withdrawal from the life of a strong personality. People who do not
afraid to overcome the fear of the unknown, take a step towards oblivion. But
cease to fight for the life of the individual is only weak, those who are overawed
before the difficulties encountered.
AT "Theatrical novel" Bulgakov has a wonderful episode, with
which begins a chapter titled "The attack of neurasthenia". On
the protagonist of the work rolls the fear of death, a close
to desire death, unexpected help comes from one simple
I thought - "Who is going to feed that old cat?"wretched
selected once in the courtyard of the beast I have a strong interest in that
Nothing happened with the owner. That's one small episode can
make life-affirming power of the entire work.
Your life can be happy or unhappy. But this is - not the
the main thing. At present it is important to only one thing. Your life - it's
the only thing you have. For it is still worth clinging to it in order