What tests need to take in cases of suspected COPD

Content

  • Mandatory tests in COPD
  • Additional diagnostic methods
  • The diagnostic criteria for COPD
  • Degrees of severity of COPD, their clinical and laboratory manifestations


  • What tests need to take in cases of suspected COPDhome
    problem in the diagnosis of COPD-reduction stands chronic obstructive
    pulmonary disease
    - Is untimely. Lung disease COPD progresses slowly and imperceptibly, to
    early stages the symptoms bother patients not too much, and often
    apply by the patients themselves, and therapist at the expense of the common cold, chronic
    bronchitis or some other reasons.

    Only
    alertness of physicians and their attention to patients with a history, there are indications
    the possibility of хобл, capable
    improve the early detection of disease and, therefore, its success
    treatment. At diagnosis treatment of COPD should start immediately.

    How to distinguish COPD? Exist
    a lot of lung disease in which patients concerned about shortness of breath, cough,
    release a certain amount of sputum and general weakness. But with the development of COPD symptoms these are
    constant and, moreover, increase with time. And may intensify
    or shortness of breath, or coughing or both of these problems together.

    Among
    a plurality of diagnostic methods of research that can help
    Confirmation of the diagnosis as chronic
    obstructive pulmonary disease
    , The two groups can be distinguished: compulsory
    Survey and optional.



    Mandatory tests in COPD:

    • spirometry - a study of function of external
      breathing;
    • general blood analysis;
    • study the cellular composition of sputum
      (cytology);
    • chest X-ray in two projections;
    • electrocardiogram.



    Additional diagnostic methods

    Because the obstructive pulmonary disease It has
    varying degrees of severity, as well as their similar symptoms to other diseases
    lungs, then to clarify the diagnosis and determine the severity of the disease can
    Additional methods of examination to be appointed:

    • body plethysmography;
    • gas dilution technique;
    • definition of the partial pressure of gases (O2
      and CO2) In arterial and venous blood;
    • pulse oximetry (blood saturation monitoring
      oxygen);
    • CT scan;
    • echocardioscopy (ultrasound of the heart) with the definition of
      the pressure at the mouth of the pulmonary artery;
    • study with physical activity
      (Stepping six-minute test);
    • Diagnostic bronchoscopy;
    • sputum on flora (species
      bacteria and their number), and sensitivity to antibiotics;
    • biochemical blood tests,
      protein and electrolyte content - particularly important in the later stages COPDAccompanied by cardiac and
      respiratory failure;
    • immunological blood tests can be
      inexplicably assigned at the low efficiency of the therapy and
      progression of the inflammatory process in lungs.



    The diagnostic criteria for COPD

    that
    deliver reliable diagnosis chronic
    obstructive pulmonary disease
    , You must take into account the following
    circumstances:

    1. In the history of the patient factors must be present
      Risk: long-term smoking, living in a hostile environment
      environment, occupational hazards - work in a contaminated atmosphere.
    2. The patient characteristics should be determined for COPD symptoms: dyspnea from
      labored breath, chronic cough (especially in the morning).
    3. Typical changes in spirometry:
      decrease in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) In the first second.
    4. Information about the steady development of the disease and the deterioration
      the patient's health.



    COPD severity, and their clinical
    laboratory manifestations

    must be
    consider that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease It has four degrees of severity,
    and for each of these degrees is characterized by changes in the state of health
    patients, and the results of surveys.

    Clinical and laboratory-instrumental signs of COPD, depending on the severity (stage):

    Mild:

    • cough - unstable;
    • shortness of breath - only under intense physical exertion;
    • cyanosis - lack;
    • sputum - meager;
    • paradoxical pulse - is absent;
    • auscultation wheezing symptoms - is not always defined;
    • red blood cells, hemoglobin - the norm;
    • ECG - the norm;
    • FEV1 - More than 80% of predicted;
    • blood gases - the norm;
    • X-ray of the lungs - is not revealed pathology.


    Average rate:

    • Cough - a permanent, most pronounced in the morning;
    • shortness of breath - at moderate exertion;
    • cyanosis - when Emphysematous type after exercise, when bronhiticheskom constantly;
    • sputum - scant, mostly in the morning;
    • paradoxical pulse - appears after exercise;
    • auscultation wheezing symptoms - scattered raznotembrovye dry wheezing episodes distance;
    • red blood cells, hemoglobin - the norm;
    • ECG - the norm;
    • FEV1 - Less than 80% of predicted;
    • blood gases - hypoxemia during exercise (65 <PaO2 <80 mm Hg);
    • X-ray of the lungs - the strengthening and deformation of lung pattern, sealing bronchial walls.


    Severe:

    • cough - permanent;
    • shortness of breath - alone;
    • cyanosis - a constant;
    • sputum - a permanent, not more than 60 ml / day .;
    • paradoxical pulse - constant;
    • auscultation wheezing symptoms - wheezing remote, raznotembrovye dry and mixed wet rales;
    • red blood cells, hemoglobin - more than 5.0 × 1012/ L, more than 150 g / l;
    • ECG - signs of persistent pulmonary heart;
    • FEV1 - Less than 50% of predicted;
    • blood gases - hypoxemia, hypercapnia alone (PaO2 <65 mm Hg);
    • X-ray of the lungs - low standing dome of the diaphragm, limiting its mobility, gipervozdushnost lung tissue, increased retrosternal space.


    It is hard degree:

    • FEV1 - Less than 30% predicted or less than 50% in combination with chronic respiratory insufficiency;

    Extremely heavy degree of COPD. At the point of gravity of the state of human COPD much worse, and there are acute life-threatening. The disease causes disability. There is very severe airflow obstruction. At this stage the possible development of pulmonary heart disease.

    With the development of the disease increases respiratory failure, therefore
    later stages treatment of COPD more
    Oxygen therapy is the use of inhaled bronchodilators and
    means. Learn more about the possibilities of treatment of obstructive lung disease and
    an apparatus used for this purpose can be the company's website

    Company name: OOO "Medic Plus»

    Company address: Ul. Electrozavodskaya, d. 20.

    Phone:
    8 (495) 780-67-37 or 8
    (800) 555-54-53

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