What are the indications for surgery on the thyroid gland
Previously, thyroid disease, especially inform appreciable increase and its increased activity, treated surgically. In 1909, Professor Theodore Kocher of Switzerland's Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded for what he has done thyroidectomy safe operation. Over the past 50 years we have made numerous discoveries in the field of medical research, thyroid, reducing the need for surgical treatment. However, currently surgery remains an important part of the treatment of many diseases of the thyroid gland.
Surgical treatment is particularly indicated thepatients who may be considered malignant nodes that detected mainly by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy can detect cancerous tissue, it often indicates a malignancy by detecting "cell" or "follicular" damage so that even though the result of fine-needle aspiration biopsy can not point directly to the diagnosis of cancer, it can give results indicating the possibility of cancer tumor requiring surgical treatment. Patients with increased activity and an increase in thyroid surgery may be required. Such treatment is especially necessary if these patients have single or multiple nodes in the thyroid gland. Less need surgical treatment of patients with diffuse toxic goiter (DTG), but even in this case, patients with a significant increase in prostate volume, or with diffuse toxic goiter, in which there is a single node is determined by scanning a cold, or unusual patients with weak absorption radioactive iodine may be surgical treatment.
Patients who have been in the distant pastdue to the radiation treatment of the skin, head and neck, thyroid nodularity that may require surgical treatment can develop, especially due to the fact that in such cases the frequency of prostate cancer is 30 to 60%.
Sometimes the thyroid gland in patients canincrease to such an extent that it puts pressure on the esophagus or the trachea, making it difficult to swallow or creating a feeling of suffocation. It can be installed with the help of X-ray examination of the chest, in which it is clear that the windpipe is shifted enlarged thyroid gland. In this situation, you can choose to have surgery to help remove these phenomena.
How is the operation
Patients who require thyroid surgerygland, usually placed in the hospital on the day before surgery, after appropriate preoperative examination, which may include chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, and various blood tests, including thyroid functional activity tests. Surgery is performed in a relatively short incision with a central bottom of the neck. Spreading the central muscles of the neck and remove the thyroid lobe, previously carefully the prepared upper laryngeal and recurrent laryngeal nerves to the vocal cords and parathyroid glands that control calcium levels in the body.
In some cases it is necessary only to removea small portion or half of the thyroid gland, especially in benign diseases. The thyroid gland consists of two symmetrical lobes and if both increased share, has a malignant neoplasm or volume goiter in diffuse toxic goiter, may need to remove most of the thyroid gland.
If the thyroid gland has a cancerous tumor,the surgeon must check the spread of cancer cells in cervical lymph nodes. If the affected cervical lymph nodes, they need to be removed by a modified operation excision of cervical nodes, which is minimally violates the function and appearance. The incision made to thyroidectomy need to extend to the bottom of the neck in order to open the box for excision of cervical nodes.
After surgery, the incision is sutured carefully, andthe patient can usually be discharged the next day or second day after surgery. The stitches can be removed on the second day after surgery, and the patient will need to visit the surgeon a week after surgery for further examination.
How is the post-operative period
Immediately after surgery the patient will experienceswelling of the neck in the area of the cut, sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and some discomfort in the back of the neck due to its position during operation. All these phenomena are usually modest and are alone a few days or 1-3 weeks.
Sometimes, fluid may accumulate under the cut andthe surgeon will need to take it with a needle and syringe. This method makes it easy to cope with this problem, and usually does not require an incision to open for discharging the accumulated liquid.
Occasionally there may be some voice disorders. They are caused by a form of laryngitis, caused by irritation of the tube for anesthesia and tested for a few weeks or a few months. Damage to the recurrent nerve can cause hoarseness or weakness of voice, but this complication is rare, and it can be completely avoided. Sometimes malignant tumors recurrent nerve is affected by tumor, so its loss can not be avoided to completely remove the cancer cells.
By removing most of the thyroid gland,condition might occur due to low levels of calcium in the body, but it can be easily treated calcium supplementation in the diet. This condition usually resolves on its own, although it may take several weeks or months before the calcium levels return to normal, and the pills will not be required. Sometimes it is required to take the tablet with a calcium constantly, especially in the case of a large cancerous tumor of the thyroid, which prevents excessive interference on this gland.
The incision usually heals very well and did notleave cosmetic defects. Excessive thickening or formation of keloid scars happens in people of eastern origin, blacks, or adolescence. They are treated with injections of cortisone, which usually lead to an improvement.
Treatment and recovery from surgery
After surgery, patients are advised to treat
thyroid replacement therapy drugs
cancer, even if only a small part of the thyroid
He demanded the removal of the prostate. This protects the patient
from hypothyroidism and appearance of the tumor
tumor or increase in the remainder of
If the patient's disease is caused by a cancerous tumor,
it may require treatment with radioactive iodine
and even radiotherapy with external irradiation of the neck.
This is determined by the conclusions drawn in the analysis
Fabric doctor pathologist. the patient's physician must
make recommendations regarding such treatment.
It is important that all patients undergoing thyroidectomy,
physician observed for at least 2 times
year to check the status of their thyroid gland.
Taking the pills with thyroid hormones
It is very simple and does not require complicated control. Patients
with malignant tumors must attend
doctor more often and require ultrasound
neck and thyroglobulin analysis to identify possible
Patients undergoing thyroidectomy usually quickly
reduced and, as a rule, the operation is almost
It leaves no residue. Side effects of surgery
should be minimal and should ensure
that the surgeon selected for the operation,
It has experience or training for operations
on the thyroid gland. Treatment of malignant
neoplasms, particularly surgical techniques,
very efficient and the percentage of recovery is very
high. After recovering from surgery on the thyroid
gland, patients feel healthy and strong.