Urinalysis: decoding and norms


Analysis of urineUrinalysis - a laboratorystudy allows to evaluate the composition and physico-chemical properties of urine. These figures provide the physician to judge the presence of all sorts of diseases and the need to adjust therapy.

How to prepare a urine sample

To prepare for the general urine analysis should beresponsible approach, in order not to distort the results of the study. It requires a thorough toilet of genitals, to avoid getting any discharge into the liquid. To collect the necessary dry sterile container, it can be purchased at the pharmacy or use of any suitable home storage.

Patients who underwent cystoscopy shouldrefrain from of urinalysis for 6-8 days. Also not recommended to collect material for the women in the menstrual period, so that the blood was not included in analyzes and distort the overall picture.

Taking certain medications may affect the results of urinalysis, so you have to either temporarily discontinue therapy or pre-warn the doctor.

The norms and deviations in the overall analysis of urine

UrineIn normal urine is yellowdifferent shades, clear, with a specific, not pungent odor. Proportion of healthy human urine is about 1,018 in the morning portion, it includes not observed protein, bilirubin, hemoglobin, glucose and ketone bodies, no fungi and bacteria cylinders salt. The content of normal blood components is allowed in small amounts, the values ​​vary depending on the sex of the patient.

Decoding values

By most measures urinalysis in decoding for adults and children is virtually identical.

  • Transparency. It may be affected in the urine (salts, blood components, epithelium, fats). Turbidity is observed in inflammatory processes in the urinary tract. For older patients, it is not abnormal, it is associated with age-related changes.
  • Colour. Diseases of the genitourinary system urine stains in shades of red (from crimson to brown).
  • Smell. The smell of feces indicates puzyrnorektalny fistula, ammonia - by cystitis, rot - on gangrenous disease of the urinary tract, acetone - for diabetes.
  • pH. Alkaline reaction is characteristic for vegetarians and patients with inflammatory pathologies. The acidic reaction is characteristic of a diet with a predominance of meat products and for metabolic disorders.
  • Specific gravity. When pyelonephritis urine density is reduced in diabetic patients and in patients with cardiovascular disorders - increased.
  • Protein. traces of protein in the urine indicate the need for further surveys and direct protein - about kidney failure and inflammation of the kidneys.
  • Bilirubin. The presence of bilirubin in the urine indicates viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, obstructive jaundice.
  • Ketone bodies. They become visible in the assay at a strong dehydration (diarrhea, vomiting, high fever, etc.).
  • White blood cells. They indicate pathological processes in the urogenital system.
  • Erythrocytes. They appear in urolithiasis, bleeding in the urinary tract, problems with clotting.
  • Cylinders and epithelium. These components are present in the urine in infectious diseases and renal pathologies organic along with cylinders epithelium and protein in the urine increased.
  • Salts. Their presence speaks of beriberi, metabolic disorders, and the predominance of a single product in the patient's diet.
  • Flora, fungi, parasites: the presence of any of them indicates diseases of the urogenital system and requires appropriate therapy.

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