Chronic heart failure


  • Heart failure
  • What are the causes of heart failure?
  • Symptoms of the disease
  • Diagnosis of heart failure
  • What are the protective forces of the body to combat failure?
  • Treatment of heart failure
  • Forecasts

  • Heart failure

    The main function of the heart is the supply of oxygen and nutritional
    elements of all organs and tissues of the body, as well as the removal of products
    their vital activity. Depending on whether we rest or actively work,
    The body requires a different amount of blood. For adequate support
    The needs of the body is the frequency and power of cardiac abbreviations, as well as the size
    The lumen of the vessels can vary significantly.

    Diagnosis «heart failure» means that the heart stopped
    sufficiently supply tissues and organs with oxygen and nutrients.
    The disease usually has a chronic course, and the patient can many years
    live with him before the diagnosis.

    What are the causes of heart failure?

    Wested cause of heart failure is the narrowing of the arteries,
    Oxygen Cardiac Muscle. Although vascular diseases develop
    in a relatively young age, manifestation of stagnant heart failure
    observed most often among the elderly. According to statistics among people older
    70 years, 10 out of 1,000 patients are diagnosed with heart failure.
    The disease is more common in women, t.To. Men have a high mortality percentage
    directly from diseases of the vessels (myocardial infarction) before
    they will develop in heart failure. Other factors causing
    The development of this disease is hypertension, alcoholic and narcotic
    Dependency, changes in the structure of heart valves, hormonal disorders
    (for example, hyperthyroidism - overpowering the thyroid gland), infectious
    Inflammations of the heart muscle (myocardits) and others.

    Symptoms of the disease

    Depending on the nature of the course of the disease distinguish with acute and chronic
    Cardic insufficiency. Manifestations of disease are slowing down speed
    general blood flow, reducing the amount of blood emitted by the heart,
    Increased pressure in cardiac chambers, accumulation of redundant blood,
    with which the heart does not cope in the so-called «depot» -
    feet and abdominal veins. Weakness and rapid fatigue are the first
    Symptoms of heart failure.

    In connection with the inability of the heart to cope with the entire volume of circulating
    Blood, excess fluid from the bloodstream accumulates in various organs
    and body tissues, as a rule, in the feet, caviar, hips, stomach and in the liver.

    Chronic heart failureAs a result of the increase in pressure and accumulation of fluid in the lungs can be observed
    Such a phenomenon like a dispatch or a breath disruption. Normally oxygen easily
    passes from the rich capillaries of the lung fabric into the overall bloodstream, however
    When the fluid is accumulated in the lungs, which is observed in heart failure,
    oxygen does not fully penetrate the capillaries. Low oxygen concentration
    In the blood stimulates the increase in breathing. Often patients wake up by
    nights from attacks choking.

    For example, American President Roosevelt, who suffered from heart failure
    For a long time, I slept sitting in a chair because of problems with breathing impairment.

    The yield of fluid from the bloodstream in fabrics and organs can stimulate
    not only breathing problems and sleep disorders. Patients add sharply
    in weight due to swelling of soft fabrics in the field of feet, shin, hips, sometimes
    and in the abdomen. Evenkers are clearly felt when pressed by a finger in
    These places.

    In particularly severe cases, the liquid can accumulate inside the abdominal cavity.
    There is a dangerous state - ascites. Usually ascites is a complication
    launched heart failure.

    When a certain amount of fluid from the bloodstream goes into the lungs,
    There is a state characterized by the term «pulmonary edema».
    Elevation of the lungs is often found in chronically current heart failure
    and accompanied by pink, blood wets with cough.

    Insufficiency of blood supply has its impact on all organs and
    Systems of the human body. From the central nervous system,
    Especially in elderly patients, a decrease in mental function can be observed.

    Diagnosis of heart failure

    With a stethoscope, the doctor listens to unusual noises in the lungs arising
    Due to the presence of fluid in Alveola. The presence of fluid in one
    Another field of the body can also be detected using X-ray.

    The doctor listens to the noise in the heart, arising when filling and emissions
    blood, as well as when working with heart valves.

    The formation of the limbs (cyanosis), often accompanied by chills, testifies
    On the insufficient concentration of oxygen in the blood and is an important diagnostic
    Sign of heart failure.

    The edema of the limbs is diagnosed when pressed by a finger. Notes
    The time required for smoothing the compression area.

    To assess the heart parameters, such techniques are used as an echocardiogram
    and radionuclide cardiogram.

    When heart catheterization, a thin tube is entered through a vein or artery
    directly into the heart muscle. This procedure allows you to measure
    Pressure in heartcams and reveal the location of the blood clockwork.

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) allows you to graphically evaluate the resizing changes
    and rhythm of heart. In addition, using ECG you can see how effective
    Drug therapy.

    What are the protective forces of the body to combat failure?

    In cases where the organ or system of the body is not able to cope
    With their functions, protective mechanisms and other organs or
    Systems participate in solving the problem. The same is observed
    And in the case of heart failure.

    First, there are changes from the heart muscle. Heart cameras
    increase in size and work with greater force to more
    blood came to organs and tissues.

    Secondly, the frequency of heart rate increases.

    Thirdly, a compensatory mechanism is launched, called renin angiotensin
    System. When the amount of blood emitted by heart is reduced and
    Less oxygen flows to internal organs, the kidneys begin immediately
    Hormone production - renin, which allows you to delay salt and water,
    deposited with urine, and return them into the bloodstream. This leads to an increase
    The volume of circulating blood and increase pressure. The body should be
    I am sure that a sufficient amount of oxygen goes to the brain and another
    vital organs. This compensatory mechanism, however, is effective
    Only in the early stages of the disease. The heart is not capable of
    For many years to work in reinforced mode in conditions of high pressure.

    Treatment of heart failure

    The best treatment of heart failure is its prevention that
    Includes treatment of arterial hypertension, prevention
    atherosclerosis, healthy lifestyle, exercise and diet (in
    First of all, salt limit).

    For medication therapy of heart failure, such
    Preparations: Diuretics, Cardiac Glycosides, Vasodilators
    (nitrates), calcium channel blockers, beta blockers and others. In especially
    Heavy Cases Conducted Surgical Treatment.

    Diuretics are used from the 50s of the 20th century. Preparations help
    Heart work, stimulating the excretion of excess salt and water with urine. As a result
    The volume of circulating blood decreases, blood pressure decreases,
    Easy blood flow.

    The most important in heart failure is a group of drugs,
    derivatives of the plants of aphristic or «Cardiac glycosides».
    These medicinal substances were first discovered in the 18th century and are widely used
    To this day. Cardiac glycosides affect internal metabolic processes
    inside the cells of the heart, increasing the power of heart abbreviations. Thanks to
    The blood supply to the internal organs is significantly improved.

    Recently, new ones are applied to the treatment of heart failure
    Classes of drugs, such as vasodilators (vasodilators).
    These drugs primarily affect peripheral arteries, stimulating
    their expansion. As a result, due to the facilitation of blood current by vessels,
    Improves the work of the heart. Nitrates include vasodilators,
    An angiotensin gloculating enzyme blockers, calcium channel blockers.

    In emergency cases, surgical intervention is carried out, which is especially
    It is necessary when deficiency is caused by violations by heart

    There are situations where the only way to save the life to the patient
    is heart transplant.


    Estimated about 50% of patients with a diagnosis of heart failure,
    live with this disease for more than 5 years. However, forecasts for each individual
    The patient depends on the severity of the disease concomitant diseases,
    age, therapy efficiency, lifestyle and many other. Treatment
    This disease pursues the following objectives: improving the work of the left
    Golden Hearts, Disability and Quality Improvement
    Patient life.

    Treatment of heart failure, started in the earliest stages, significantly
    Improves patient life forecast.

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