Hello Arethais invented her the name "Diabetes" - in Greek "I proceed, pass through". Scientist Celsius argued that in the emergence of diabetes mellitus the indignant of the stomach was guilty, and the Great Hippocrat was diagnosed, trying the patient's urine to taste.
By the way, the ancient Chinese also knew that under diabetes mellitus it becomes sweet. They came up with an original diagnostic method with the help of flies (and OS). If the fly sits on a saucer with urine, then urine is sweet, and the patient is sick.
What is diabetes?
Sugar diabetes is a disease that is characterized by a high blood sugar content and the appearance of sugar in the urine. There are two types of diabetes.
Insulin-dependent diabetes (first-type diabetes) develops mainly in children and young people. Insulin-dependent diabetes (second-type diabetes) is usually developing in people over 40 years having overweight. This is the most common type of illness (occurs in 80-85% of cases).
From what happens diabetes? The development of type 1 diabetes is associated with a violation of the pancreas. It ceases to produce a hormone insulin - a substance regulating blood sugar level.
In diabetes mellitus, 2 types of insulin is produced, as it should be, but the cells of the body cease to perceive it.
To the question: "Why diabetes arises?"- Scientists have so far been answering. Also installed only one thing: diabetes can not be infected with contact with a sick person.
Provok diabetes can...
Bad heredity (diabetes of blood relatives); obesity; Small physical activity; Failures in Immunimathose; diseases of the pancreas (cancer, pancreatitis); viral infections (rubella, chickenpox, hepatitis and even flu); stress; elderly age; Abuse alcohol and sweet; Ears of belly and brain.
What's happening? As a result of insulin shortage, the body cannot use glucose, it accumulates blood. Excess glucose is removed with urine, which leads to frequent urination. Loss of fluid causes increased thirst and consumption of a large amount of water.
Sugar diabetes leads to a violation of carbohydrate metabolism, and therefore, all vital processes in the body suffer.
Symptoms of diabetes
Rapid weight loss; dehydration of the body; increased fatigue; weakness; bad sleep; Itching skin. The diabetes mellitus of the first type is sometimes manifested by a sharp deterioration of the state, when pronounced weakness occurs, abdominal pain appears, vomiting, the smell of acetone from mouth. These are signs of approaching hyperglycemic coma. If it does not recognize it in time, the patient can lose consciousness and die.
The second type diabetes is usually developing gradually for a long time.
Sick diabetes patients must be registered with an endocrinologist's doctor.
The following studies perform for the diagnosis of diabetics:
Blood test on glucose (As a rule, blood is carried out from the finger): the elevated glucose content is determined (hyperglycemia).
Analysis must be handed over. Tolerance to glucose tolerance: On an empty stomach takes about 75 g of sugar (the exact number of the doctor prescribes), then the concentration of glucose in the blood is determined after 0.5, 2 and 6 hours. On the day of the sample, it is desirable not to smoke, do not worry, notSome medicines (aspirin, glucocorticoids).
Urine analysis on glucose and ketone bodies: Detection of ketone bodies and glucose confirms diagnosis of diabetes.
Determination of glycosylated hemoglobin (in venous blood) its number increases significantly in patients with diabetes.
Definition of insulin and C-peptide in the blood. With the first type of diabetes mellitus, the amount of insulin and C-peptide is significantly reduced, and at the second - it is possible to values within the norm. To determine the glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, C-peptide, blood fence is made from veins.
Treatment of diabetes
Includes: Special diet - It is necessary to eliminate sugar, alcoholic beverages, syrups, pastries, cookies, grapes and dates. Food needs to be taken in small portions, better than 4-5 times a day. Recommended products containing various sugar substitutes (aspartame, saccharin, xylitis, sorbitol, fructose, etc.). Daily use of insulin (insulin therapy) - it is necessary to patients with diabetes of the first type. The drug is produced in special syringe knobs, with which it is easy to make injections.
In the treatment of insulin, it is necessary to independently control the level of glucose in the blood and urine (with the help of special strips).
From tablets that contribute to a decrease in blood sugar levels, as a rule, begin the treatment of a diabetes of second type. When progressing the disease, insulin is needed.
People suffering from diabetes mellitus, useful exercise. The healing role also has a decrease in weight in obesity patients.
Treatment of diabetes mellitus is carried out for life. Self-control and accurate implementation of the recommendations of the doctor make it possible to avoid or significantly slow down the development of the complications of the disease.