The concept of the adenome of the thyroid gland
Tyroxic adenoma is a disease accompanied by an increased thyroid function with a high amount of thyroid hormones in the blood. At the same time, the products of thyroid hormones occur due to their reinforced products by adenoma (benign tumor formation from iron tissue) of the thyroid gland.
The thyroid adenoma can be single or less, adenomes are somewhat. Most often, this disease is found in women (3-4 times more often than in men). Especially often in women from 40 to 60 years. The frequency of the toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland increases in the regions of endemic by goiter.
The size of the thyrotoxic adenoma is usually small - up to three centimeters in diameter. The peculiarity of it is that it is hardly producing thyroid hormones (predominantly triiodothyronine) regardless of the regulatory action of the pituitary. A large number of hormones in the blood suppresses the pituitary function, the products of thyrotropine decrease, and the rest of the thyroid fabric reduces its function.
Sometimes thyrotoxic adenoma occurs in the previously existing non-toxic node. Therefore, the presence of nodal formations in the thyroid gland increases the risk of toxic adenoma. Shielding toxic adenoma of thyroid gland Looks like clinical manifestations of diffuse toxic goiter.
By flow there are two forms of toxic adenoma:
With a compensated toxic adenome, the thyroid fabric continues to function normally, hormone products are hypophized relatively saved and signs of hyperthyroidism appear slightly.
The decompensated form of the toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland is characterized by pronounced manifestations of thyrotoxicosis and a significant decrease in thyrotropine products by the hypothalamus. Unlike diffuse toxic goiter, the middle age of patients with tyrotoxic adenoma is much older and develops a little slower.
The initial manifestations of the toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland:
- Reducing body weight in the absence of changes in nutrition and lifestyle
- Bad tolerability of heat and heat
- Student heartbeat, persistent alone and even in a dream
- Fast fatigue during exercise
Elderly patients have the only complaints of a rapid heartbeat and shortness of breath during exercise, weakness, drowsiness or insomnia. With a further flow of the disease, violations of the gastrointestinal tract appear, blood pressure increases, sometimes a constant slight increase in body temperature appears. The skin of the patient is wet, limb is warm. However, changes in the color of the skin and the symptoms from the eye of the eyes are usually absent. Changes on the side of the cardiovascular system are gradually progressing, flickering arrhythmia arises, thyrotoxic myocardiodistrophy, which ultimately lead to the development of heart failure.
Diagnosis of the disease
The diagnosis of tyrotoxic adenoma is established on the basis of a survey and examination of the patient. When tamping the thyroid gland, an increase in one of the shares of the thyroid gland is revealed, it can be forgiven the node. The content of thyroid hormones is investigated. And the amount of triiodothyronine (T3) is significantly increased, and the thyroxine level can be almost normal. The amount of thyrotropine blood (pituitary hormone) may be normal or reduced. Radioisotope scanning of the thyroid gland allows you to detect «hot» Knot, actively accumulating radioactive iodine. In biochemical analysis of blood, show signs of violation of protein, fat and carbohydrate exchange.
Tarotoxic adenoma is a benign tumor formation, and the transition of it in a malignant form is very rare.
Methods of treatment of the toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland
Treatment of Tarotoxic Adenoma Surgical. In the preoperative period, in the presence of severe toxicosis, thirtyotic therapy is used. Preparations are prescribed, overwhelming the function of the thyroid gland (thiamazole, carbymazole, propicate). Patient needs to provide mental peace, full sleep. Can not be in the open sun. A diet with a large protein content in food, vitamins. Sometimes beta-blockers are prescribed.
Next, operational treatment is carried out: the adenoma of the thyroid gland is removed surgically. Sometimes peaceful patients are treated with radioactive iodine. Tarotoxic adenoma actively accumulates such iodine and under the influence of radioactive iodine adenoma cells are destroyed, and it ceases to function.
There is a method of treatment, when ethyl alcohol from 1 to 8 ml is introduced directly to the node. Such injections are repeated several times. It is believed that at the same time the destruction of the node and the toxic adenoma stops the products of hormones.
Forecast with thyrotoxic adenoma satisfactory. Malignant rebirth occurs very rarely, including after treatment with radioactive iodine.