What is hypothyroidism?
Hormones of the thyroid gland regulate the metabolism in the body, and therefore control the weight, help to be energetic, have good skin and hair.
Several groups of reasons are isolated, which can lead to a decrease in the function of the thyroid gland - hypothyroidism. This is the defeat of the thyroid gland itself, violation of the agreed activity of regulatory centers, the reception of some drugs. Up to 50% of patients undergoing the operation on the thyroid gland, suffer from hypothyroidism.
In a large number of people, hypothyroidism develops due to insufficient iodine intake with food and water. This is especially true of the inhabitants of geographic areas, the soil and the water of which are poor by this microelement. In this case, there is a compensatory increase in the thyroid sizes, which is called endemic goiter.
Iodine - vital trace element. It is necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones: T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxin). For the normal synthesis of these hormones, daily arrival with food 200-300 μg iodine.
With a deficiency of iodine in the human body, the thyroid gland to synthesize hormones in sufficient quantity cannot be disturbed by all metabolic processes. The lack of iodine for children, teenagers, pregnant and nursing women is especially dangerous.
However, it should be borne in mind that iodine in large doses suppresses the function of the thyroid gland and causes temporary hypothyroidism. Therefore, important «Golden» middle.
How hypothyroidism is manifested?
Hypothyroidism develops slowly, long, can be very hidden, fuzzy.
How to determine what you should turn to the endocrinologist and pass the survey?
Activity: If you have reduced performance, you constantly want to sleep, you quickly get tired of a small amount of work;
leather: if the skin has become dry, nails - brittle, hair just beams remain on the comb, and in the outer part of the eyebrows fell completely. You often freeze in the warm room, almost never sweat, the skin on the elbows, the knees and the feet are rude, peel. If you are already tired, once to rub a nutrient cream into the skin, and the teacher's successes hold very long;
Face: if there is a constant swelling around the eyes, a pale yellow skin color, on the cheeks - a blush;
weight increases, and you do not overeat. Appetite is reduced;
It was a slow, fuzzy, the voice - hoarse;
If you have a reduced cardiac frequency (the rate of 60-80 strikes per minute), bother the frequent bloating and constipation, you mark the reduction of memory and bad mood, lethargy, depression, you have anemia (even if you are taking iron preparations), there are compaction and pain in the muscles;
In severe launched cases, hypothyroidism can be a cluster of fluid in the lungs, abdominal cavity, very pronounced skin peeling - it lies like dandruff.
Hypothyroidism in women
often leads to infertility, and if pregnancy has come, then in half cases it is interrupted. The hormones of the thyroid gland of the mother through the placenta enter the blood of the fetus and protect it from hypothyroidism up to delivery;
If the future mother has hypothyroidism - the reception of drugs (thyroid hormones) during pregnancy is obligatory! This allows not only to endure a long-awaited baby, but also to prevent possible delay in mental development.
In areas with a lack of iodine in water and food, iodine deficiency in mothers - the most common cause of hypothyroidism in newborns. If after birth, the child does not receive iodine in sufficient quantity with milk or food, hypothyroidism is preserved and can lead to coolinism - irreversible disorders of mental and physical development, dementia.
You need to know: all children in the maternity hospital examine on congenital hypothyroidism. However, light shapes of hypothyroidism can be missed.
How to suspect hypothyroidism in a newborn?
Such kids seem calm, rarely cry, crying may be hoarse, they sleep very much, and when wake up, they play reluctantly, it is difficult and long to study a new one. There are neurological symptoms, which makes it takes to turn to a neurologist, the skin is usually dry, the child practically does not sweat.
Moms try to wear baby warmer, because the handles, the legs are constantly cold. Summises, reminding specks - marble leather. And if another child eats badly, not enough weight, growth, be sure to refer to the endocrinologist!
Better refute the fears than to miss the initial manifestations of the disease.
Of course, many manifestations of hypothyroidism can occur with other diseases, such as hypovitaminosis. But if you have found a number of symptoms - be sure to refer to the endocrinologist!
Confirm or refute the diagnosis will help the study of blood hormones. To begin with, it will be enough to determine the level of TSH and free T4.
What kind of hormones?
As soon as the body decreases the level of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), thyrotropic hormone (TTG) is produced in the pituitary gland. Tireotropic hormone (means directional effect on the thyroid gland) - signal of the thyroid gland to increase the synthesis of its hormones.
If the thyroid gland for some reason (iodine deficiency, thyroid damage) cannot synthesize hormones in sufficient quantities, then the TSH is significantly increased, and T3 and T4 decreases. This indicates hypothyroidism. Well also to conduct an ultrasound study of the thyroid gland.
Is it difficult to treat hypothyroidism?
Treatment is to prescribe drugs containing thyroid hormones. With timely diagnosis and proper treatment, the unpleasant manifestations of this disease quickly disappear, good mood appears and the desire to work. In most cases, it is necessary to take drugs constantly throughout life.
If we talk about newborns, then if the treatment is started on time (up to 4-6 months) and is properly carried out up to three years, then the intellect of kids is not violated, and the growth and development of the skeleton occurs according to age norms.