The concept of hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency
Syndrome of hypothalamic-pituitary failure (hyponituitarian) is a disease characterized by a decrease and loss of the function of the pituitary and hypothalamus. The pituitary consists of two fractions of the front and rear. In the front share of the pituitary gland, the production of six hormones (adrenocorticotropin, prolactin, somatotropin, follitropine, lutropin and thyrotropin) occurs. In case of hypocitutarism, the products of all pituitary hormones are dramatically reduced or disappeared. As a result, the function of peripheral endocrine glands, whose work is controlled by the pituitary hormones is reduced.
Hyponituitarism can be primary when the hormone-producing cells of the pituitary alone are destroyed or missing, and the secondary, if the hypothalamus or central nervous system is due to insufficiency of the pituitary function. Sometimes there is a lack of products of one of the hormones of pituitary.
The causes of hypical syndrome can be:
- Adenoma pituitary gland
- Tumors pituitary and hypothalamus or other departments of the central nervous system
- Shuller's disease
- Disease blood
- Inflammatory diseases of the brain
- Vascular disorders in the arteries of blood supply to the pituitary gland and hypothalamus
- Autoimmune diseases
- Brain injuries
- Diabetes metabolic disorders
- Long starvation
- Nerch Anorexia
- chronic renal and liver failure
Multipleness of the pituitary function may result in the abnormalities of the development of pituitary. In the postpartum period, necrosis (death) of the front lobe of the pituitary can occur in pathological purposes. With full necrosis of the front share, this condition is called syndrome of Simmonds, with partial - Schiena syndrome. In the hypopitative syndrome, the destruction of hormoneproduction cells of the front lobe of the pituitary.
Basic symptoms of the disease
Manifestations of hypocituitarianism occur when less than 10% remains functioning cells. Usually illness develops gradually for many years. The earliest sign of the disease is usually insufficient on the part of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland - a decrease in the number of hormones of the pituitary controlling the function of the genital glands.
If hypocituitarism arose in childhood or has a hereditary nature, development is disturbed during puberty. Paul ripening is delayed, eunchoid proportions of the body are formed, the bone growth of the skeleton is delayed.
In adolescence, secondary sexual signs are gradually erased:
- Summage of armpits in the armpits and pubis
- slows down the growth of beard and mustache
- decrease in the sizes of the testicles and prostate gland
- Muscular tissue is atrophy and replaced by fat
Girls breaks the menstrual cycle, the dairy glands are reduced, the tissues of the genital organs are thinned.
One of the early signs of hypocituitarism is a malfunction.
The failure of somatotropic hormone products (growth hormone) in childhood is manifested by a growth delay.
The decrease in the products of the thyrotropic hormone leads in child age to the insufficiency of the function of the thyroid gland and the delay of mental and physical development, hypothyroidism occurs. Patients usually normal nutrition, occasionally weight loss. There are complaints about weakness. They have reduced blood pressure, rare heart rhythm, often occurring gastrointestinal disorders.
In the pituitary tumors, complaints have complaints from the central nervous system - headache, visual impairment. Determined narrowing of fields of view and changes in the eye day.
It is very rarely found by syndrome of acute hypontituitarianism, when hemorrhage in the pituitary is occurred and arise:
- Sharp head
- Sudden drop of vision
- Falling blood pressure
- loss of consciousness
Methods of treatment of hypocituitarism
The treatment of hypical syndrome syndrome is carried out with regard to the disease, which led to the insufficiency of the function of the pituitary. With tumors, treatment is usually operational or radial.
To correct the insufficiency of the functions of the pituitary hormones, various drugs are prescribed, taking into account the prevalence of definite hormones. With the insufficiency of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, synthetic hormones of the adrenal cortex are prescribed - glucocorticoids:
In adolescents, male sexual ripening is prescribed by chorionic gonadotropin.
In case of insufficiency of the function of the thyroid gland, the hormones of the thyroid gland are treated.
Sometimes there is a need to prescribe growth of growth hormone.
With timely identification of the disease and treatment of treatment, patients can lead a normal lifestyle and maintain ability to work for a long time.