Breast cancer occupies today in Russia first place among all cancer in women. At the same time, the disease is rapidly youth: increasingly it is found from the Russians under the age of 40 and becomes the most common cause of the death of women 45-55 years. Who enters the risk group? What modern methods of treatment are introduced today in the field of mammology? What you need to do to save the health and beauty of the chest? All these issues, we address the head of the Mammological Center of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation, the President of the Russian Association of Mammologists Hope Hornkaya.
Question number 1. Nadezhda Ivanovna, what is the situation with the incidence of breast cancer in Russia?
The growth rate of the morbidity of breast cancer we remain very high. Every year almost 50,000 new cases of the disease are detected, which is about the fifth of all women's tumors. More than 17% of patients die. Over the past 15 years, the incidence rate has grown almost 1.5 times, at the same time, mortality increased by 25%. But you can see and positive dynamics: with the improvement of diagnostics, the detectability of cancer in the early stages increases, less becomes launched, and therefore we are less and less we have fatal outcomes.
Currently in the field of mammology at the state level a lot is done – Modern equipment is supplied, mammological screenings are carried out, high-tech assistance develops, programs for improving doctors. However, I want to emphasize that all this began quite recently, and the quick results in medicine should not be waiting. Russia – A huge country. Must go through at least 5 years so that we get objective data on improving the situation.
Question # 2. When this high-quality breakthrough occurred in our society in relation to the problems of health and beauty of the female breast? What can be considered a reference point?
In 2000, a federal mammology center was created on the basis of the Russian scientific center of X-ray radiology, then a year later, the Russian Association of Mammologists, which united doctors of various specialties for a comprehensive solution to clinical mammology problems. The decisive step was to join Russia to the worldwide movement against breast cancer, which made it possible to attract the attention of the general public and more actively to carry out mass promotions and examination of women.
For example, every year, in October, which worldwide is considered a month of fight against breast cancer, an international charitable program «Together against breast cancer» It is suitable for a large press conference in which officials and doctors and stars participate. As part of a charitable program in the regions, mass actions are underway for examinations of women for the disease of the mammary glands, the newest mammographic equipment is transferred to regional oncocentra. This topic once sounded in the media, the second, third, and went a response. We were heard and the women and the medical community, and state structures.
And now the prevention and treatment of breast diseases are becoming a priority direction of the National Project «Health». Over two years, more than 900 mammographs are sent to the regions, dispensarization programs are carried out, which include the passage of mammography for women over 40 years. In 2006, the order of the Ministry of Health and Social Development «On measures to improve the provision of medical care for diseases of the breast». In fact, for the first time the state purposefully allocates funds for the development of the mammological service in Russia. When all efforts converge together, the result is.
Question number 3. Tell us in more detail what is being done now in the field of prevention and treatment of cancer breast diseases?
Every year we open mammographic cabinets. At the moment, 1240 such offices operate in different regions of the country, and they are all equipped with modern equipment – Analog or digital mammographers, stationary or mobile.
Seven years old is the All-Russian School of Mammologists, in which doctors of different specialties are studying – Surgeons, radiologists, uziers, technology, pharmacists. Two times a year of 30-50 people from the regions come to learn about new methods of treating breast diseases.
For example, we use a mammographer with a small, unpalpable, t.E. Unbelievable cancer. The surgeon does not see and does not prove it, which means it is necessary to apply special techniques for him so that he correctly numbered, identified this site. He helps a radiologist – there is a technology when we are a special hook, mandren, we mark the affected area exactly. And the surgeon on this mandrena finds and removes this cancer education, while maintaining the patient's chest integrity.
Moreover, even malignant tumors can be treated in outpatient conditions. There is such a technique that only originates in Russia – Ultrasonic pyroterapy, during which the heat treatment of the tumor under the control of the magnetic resonance tomograph is performed. It does not require inpatient treatment and long-term reduction period.
Everyone is clear how it is important to put an accurate diagnosis to surgery. So today it is possible to produce a punctuation biopsy using stereotactics that choose the desired tissue area with an accuracy of 1 mm. According to this piece, a histological study can be carried out, which is usually done after surgery.
Introducing gentle techniques for the treatment of breast cancer, we are fighting not only for the preservation of a woman's life, but also for its quality. But even for those who survived a radical mastectomy, life does not end. Now there are magnificent correctional linen, magnificent exoprostheses made according to the latest nanotechnology. Their smooth, pearl surface perfectly adjacent to the chest and has a healing action – Promotes healing and smoothing postoperative scar. Such prostheses can be worn for several days in a row, without removing.
Today in Russia we have all the advanced technologies that are in the world. Now it is necessary to implement them everywhere, teach doctors. And our women need to know how important it is to detect the disease in the bud, as it is important to regularly undergo a chest survey. Because prevention – This, unfortunately, until our weakest link.
Question number 4. Which means breast cancer prevention to whom it is needed?
Prevention – This is, first of all, regular chest surveys, independent and using ultrasound or mammographer. It happens primary, secondary and tertiary. Women who do not suffer from breast diseases are falling into the primary prevention group, but on certain features are included in the risk group. These are those who older than 40 years, born, with unfavorable oncological heredity of the female line. This also includes those who have ever had injuries, bruises, chest operations, mastitis. The leading risk factor is obesity because it leads to a change in the hormonal background in the body. As a rule, all patients with breast cancer lived in conditions of severe stress, which adversely affected the state of their immunity. If something from the above has a direct attitude to you, then you need to be regularly examined and comply with the recommendations of your Mammologist's doctor or gynecologist in everyday life.
In turn, the secondary prophylaxis group is women who have benign breast formations, mastopathy. They need even more thorough observation with the use of methods of psychological therapy, phytotherapy and sedatives. Finally, a group of tertiary prevention combines those women who need rehabilitation after a tumor removal operation. For them, we open rehabilitation rooms, we are trying to organize a volunteer movement in which women who have suffered breast cancer and ready to provide psychological assistance to their girlfriends on misfortune.
Question number 5. Based on the above, it turns out that the breast cancer is risking almost every woman. Who had no strong stress? Each of us, if not overlapped, then someday will oversail a 40-year frontier… That you can advise our readers to protect yourself from this terrible illness?
In the first place should be a psychological attitude: feel good in life, with a sense of humor, do not waste your nerves on empty. Woman – This is a family rod. The climate in the house depends on her mood. Get pleasure from life: Eat what I like, but gradually, if there are no contraindications, do not hide in the sun – This is the source of life, the source of vitamin D. And, of course, check regularly. Mammography after 40 years must be held every two years, and women risk groups - annually. Do not neglect your health – After all, you bring not only yourself, but also your loved ones!