Treatment of kidney cancer


  • Diagnostics of kidney cancer
  • Surgical treatment of kidney cancer
  • Drug treatment of kidney cancer

  • When the first complaints are palpable, the tumor is possible in 50-60%
    Patients. Palpation capabilities depend on the magnitude of the tumor,
    its localization and state of the front abdominal wall. Pain in hypochondrier
    On the side of the defeat, it is more common for large tumors that
    As it grows, the renal capsule is stretched or squeezed nervous
    trunks. The combination of all listed symptoms that detect
    10-20% of patients, as a rule, testifies to the far
    process. Frequency is more often found from non-performing symptoms,
    Arterial hypertension, polycythemia, anemia, hypercalcemia,
    Hepatic dysfunction.

    Diagnostics of kidney cancer

    Diagnosis of kidney tumors, if
    modern research methods, no particular difficulties.
    Laboratory methods have auxiliary value. Diagnosis
    Based mainly on the results of ultrasound,
    X-ray, computer and magnetic resonance tomography. How
    Rule Study begins with an excretory (intravenous) urography,
    which allows you to get an idea of ​​the kidney function and in separate
    Cases establish the presence of a surround process. On tomograms detect
    The volume and contours of the kidney, the relationship of it with the surrounding authorities
    and tissues. At the same time, you can establish the degree of distribution
    tumor process, t.E. reveal the spread of the tumor to the area
    kidney gates, the presence of affected lymph nodes and thrombus in the lower
    hollow vein, metastases in the liver. Angiography (Radiographic examination of vessels with the introduction of a contrasting thing) It is advisable to produce
    only if there are doubts about the diagnosis or surgeon
    Interested in the blood supply of the tumor. Kavagraphia (the introduction of contrast to the lower hollow vein through the thigh veins) is used for
    establishing the degree of propagation of the tumor process, while
    Reveal the thrombus in the lower hollow vein, its compression and displacement of the tumor.


    Cancer kidney

    and the only radical treatment method is surgical
    intervention. Radiation and chemotherapy have auxiliary value.
    With regard to the testimony to nephrectomy patients with cancer I, II and III stages
    There is a single opinion: if there are no generally accepted contraindications
    To surgical treatment, it is necessary to remove the kidney with fatty tissue
    and lymph nodes with metastases. As for patients with cancer
    IV stages, in each case an individual approach is necessary.

    patients with kidney cancer IV stage whose state remains
    satisfactory, should be operated if they have singles

    It is argued by the feasibility of performing nephrectomy in patients with metastases with the following considerations:

    • Treatment of kidney cancerNephrectomy (removal of affected kidney) Allows liquidate disease symptoms —
      Pains, exhausting octants cease, appetite and many
      patients condition improving so much that they can proceed
      to work. Remission can last from 3-4 months to a year or more;
    • The operation eliminates complications associated with the collapse of the tumor, in T.C. massive bleeding and intoxication;
    • Removing the main massif of the tumor and reducing the volume of tumor masses, we
      The most increase the possibilities of the following chemotherapy
      and radiation treatment.

    Operational intervention serve as an extreme degree of exhaustion of the body, edema, massive
    multiple metastases, violation of the function of the remaining kidney, heavy
    associated diseases in which anyone is contraindicated
    surgical intervention. The risk of operation should not be higher
    ordinary. It should be emphasized that when testing
    to operations in patients with metastases, it is necessary to take into account limited
    Opportunities for subsequent medicinal and radiation therapy.

    In recent years, thanks to improving
    diagnostic technology, in patients with small tumors steel
    Apply kidney resection (partial excision of the affected organ). Direct indication for this
    Operations are the functional failure of the remaining kidney or
    Tumor in the only functioning kidney. Performance
    Kidney resection with good functions of both kidneys, if a tumor is less than 3
    cm. However, it should be remembered that the probability of recurrence (repetition, renewal) remains

    Drug treatment of kidney cancer

    medicinal methods for the treatment of kidney cancer and its metastases to this
    Time remains low. Most effective should be recognized
    Immunotherapy. Using A-interferon preparations (Nitron-A,
    Reaffeferon, Rooferon, Wellferon allows you to get up to 30-35% full
    and partial tumor regression. Regressions are usually,
    Single, small metatase sizes in lungs. Effect of application
    A-interferon preparations can sometimes manifest themselves after several
    months after the start of therapy.

    Treatment must be carried out constantly,
    without interrupting and after reaching regression. Interferon preparations
    There are such side effects as hyperthermia, muscle pain,
    sometimes — Reducing body weight. In efficiency with interferon when
    kidney cancer metastases can compete only interleukin-2, however
    The preparation has pronounced side effects and high cost.

    From cytostatics when kidney cancer are effective
    Preparations like Vinblastine, Wincristian, CCNU (Lomoustine), Bleomycin,
    Cisplatin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphane, hydroxymeur.
    The effectiveness of combination therapy — 15-20%.

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