Bronchitis - a disease characterized by inflammation of bronchi with a predominant defeat of their mucous membrane (t.E. that shell that covers bronchi from the inside). Bronchitis can be sharp (for the first time and suddenly) or chronic, in which for two years in a row, at least three months a year, the cough with a sputum suffers. Bronchitis is more common in zones with a wet climate, among working in raw rooms, etc. Bronchitis is mostly sick children and elderly, and men more often women.
The leading factor in the appearance of bronchitis is viral (flu, paragripp, adenoviruses) and bacterial (streptococci, pneumococci, hemophilic stick, etc.infections.
In some cases, a secondary bacterial infection is attached to a viral infection. The predisposing factors include supercooling, smoking, alcohol use, impairment of nasal respiration, thoracic deformation.
The main sign of bronchitis - cough (dry or wet). With acute bronchitis, cough is predominantly an attacking character, accompanied by a feeling of burning or sneakers for the sternum or in a sip. Sometimes the cough is so intense that is accompanied by a headache. Patients bother weakness, chills, temperature rise to 37—38 °C, headache.
The diagnosis of bronchitis is based on typical complaints and examination of the patient by a doctor. Typical radiological and laboratory signs no (there may be an increase in pulmonary pattern in the root region and a moderate increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood).
With acute bronchitis, a semi-noar or bed mode is needed, enhanced nutrition, rich warm drinks (tea with raspberry jam or honey, milk with soda or in half with mineral water, infusion of raspberry, lime color). Smoking is categorically prohibited. The use of cans, mustard pieces on breasts and spins, pepper plaster is possible only with the permission of the doctor.
Apply anti-inflammatory (aspirin, paracetamol, etc.), expectorant (infusion of thermopsis; 3% solution of potassium iodide; bromgexine), antitussive (libexin) and other means.
Inhalation of expectorant means, as well as preparations that dilute sputum (mucolyts), heated alkaline water, 2% solution of sodium bicarbonate, eucalyptus, anise oil with steam, ultrasound inhalers. Inhalations spend 5 minutes 3—4 times a day during the week. Thermal inhalations can be carried out at home and in the absence of special inhalers.
With the presence of a purulent dischargeable appointment of antibacterial agents. Only a doctor should assign antibiotics. Self-medication may be inefficient and dangerous.
The prevention of bronchitis is reduced, on the one hand, to the body hardened (morning gymnastics in the fresh air or with an open window, the knee washing with cool water, short-term cold shower or bathing, etc.), on the other - to prevent infection, the impact of harmful factors.
It is necessary to remove the polyps (if available), treat the curvature of the nasal partition to improve breathing. Very large importance in prevention have such sanitary and hygienic measures as the struggle against dust, smaller, gas and humidity, as well as with alcoholism and tobacco.