Many residents of the middle strip of Russia are skeptical about the possibility of frostbite, believing, it concerns the harsh genes of heroic polar explorers. Nevertheless, you can get a cold injury any and not necessarily thirty-permanent frosts, enough −10°With high humidity and a small breeze.
Children, elderly people, patients suffering from vegetary dystonia and cardiovascular diseases are simply frostbite. Contrary to popular belief, alcohol increases the risk of cold injury, as well as physical overwork, injury and diseases that reduce the endurance of the body.
Cold injury is even more dangerous than thermal burns. When contacting with a hot item, a sharp pain makes man take heard hand. In the case of cold, a gradual loss of tissue sensitivity is celebrated, a child or frost-working adult, may not notice the first signs of frostbite. It is necessary to know them, the earlier assistance will be provided, the greater the chance to go out «Dry from water».
The first degree of frostbite
The first signs of frostbite — This is not a red nose, cheeks and chin. About cold injury speaks pale, cold and weakly sensitive skin. When he warmed, it becomes a bug-blue, swells, numbness is replaced by itching and burning, then stupid pain. The consequences of frostbite are held within a week, but increased sensitivity to cold can be maintained for several years.
Second degree of frostbite
Occurs during the long-term exposure of the cold. Initially frostbitten nose or ears look like with the first degree of frostbite, the full loss of sensitivity and spilled swelling speaks about a deeper destruction, bubbles filled with light liquid appear for 2-3 days, as in burns. Restoration of damaged tissues is delayed for 2 weeks, usually traces left.
Third degree of frostbite
This severe injury characterized by leather sacrifice, the appearance of bubbles with blood fluid, complete absence of pain. Dead fabrics are rejected, the injected wounds are healing with the formation of scars by the end of 3-4 weeks.
The fourth degree of frostbite
It is characterized by a complete death of the fabrics of the affected body of the body, right up to the bones. The skin acquires marble coloring, cold and not sensitive. Similar injury ends with amputation, frostbed fingers, ears, limbs to save is impossible.
To avoid tragedy, it is important to remember the rules of prefiguration assistance during frostbite and apply them at the first signs of cold injury. As practice shows, do not everyone know how «Return to life» frostrum nose or cheek.
Initially, what to do is impossible
- Ground frozen areas. Frozen blood vessels are easily breaking, which worsens blood circulation and exacerbates injury. The sharp ice floes scratch the skin and open the gate of infection.
- Warming frostbite sections of hot water, it is necessary to increase the temperature gradually, and with a general supercooling — From the inside.
- Lubricate frnated areas of leather. Fat — «working» as a thermal insulator and prevents the warming of tissues.
- Bubbles on the skin. It is fraught with increased pain, increasing the degree of damage to the tissues and secondary infection.
What do we have to do
- Proponent assistance when frostbite begins with the cessation of cold. It is necessary to lead the victim from the frost, remove the freezing clothes.
- Suggest hot tea or milk. If there are no symptoms of general supercooling, you can give the skin a couple of tablespoons of vodka — They will expand the surface blood vessels, will contribute to the warming of fabrics.
- In the absence of visible damage to the skin, hand or soft cloth, scroll through the affected area to easy redness and sensitivity recovery.
- If in a few minutes it will not be able to achieve skin redness, immerse the injured part of the body in warm water, in case of hypothermia, organize a full-fledged bath. Water first should be warm, gradually temperatures can be increased to 40 0S, then the skin wipe dry, lay the victim and hide the blanket.
With 3-4 degrees of frostbite and overall overcooling, it is necessary to urgently apply for medical care.
On the frostbed part of the body, impose a layer of wool and fix the bandage. When frostbite the limb, it must be fixed by using plywood or dense cardboard. To reduce tissue edema to give a hand or leg an exalted position and wrapped with a warm scarf.
If medical care is delayed, frostbed skin must be treated with a solution of alcohol or vodka without touching the hands of open wounds, impose a aseptic bandage. To facilitate the pain of the victim to give an anesthetic drug from a home aid kit.
Even if frostbite first seemed easy, immediately consult a doctor if after heating the injured place pain enhanced, the skin remains cold and pale, bubbles appeared. Do not risk if the cold injury arose in a child, an elderly or sick person, if the area frostbite is more of the palm of the victim.