Long-term stay in cold air or in cold water is fraught with the general supercooling of the body. More often, supercooling occurs in the winter time when the thermometer column shows a solid minus, but it is quite possible at the plus air temperature, windy weather and high air humidity.
Swimming promotes wet clothing, alcoholic intoxication, physical overwork, poor well-being, as a result of disease or injury.
NSErecycling, first of all, is characterized by a decrease in body temperature below 34 0With braking of vital functions of the body.
Distinguish three degrees of general supercooling
Easy degree of supercooling
The skin and visible mucous meals become pale with a bluish tinge, chills appears, «goose-flesh». Speech slows down, as they say in such cases, «tooth tooth falls». Temperature of the body decreases to 32-34 0C, the pulse slows down to 60-66 shots per minute, while the blood pressure remains normal or even slightly rises. Sometimes minor overcooling accompany minor frostbite — It is necessary to be very careful not to miss a cold injury.
Average degree of supercooling
The victim is slowed down, drone, it is also trying to sleep, which it is rather impossible to allow, during sleep, the products of internal energy dramatically decreases and a person may die. Skin leather, sometimes with marble pattern, lips and nails blue, body temperature 29-32 0C, pulse 50-60 beats per minute, blood pressure decreases, slows down and becomes superficial respiration (8-12 times per minute).
Signs of supercooling are often complemented by symptoms of frostbite of hands, legs and faces of varying severity.
Heavy degree of hypothermia
In this stage, the body temperature of the injured less than 31 0C, frostbite limbs and face 3-4 degrees, consciousness is lost, often observed vomiting and convulsions, breathing barely noticeable, 3-4 times a minute, the pulse is practically not tested, the frequency of heart cuts is less than 36 shots per minute.
What can not be done when supercooling
- Take a hot bath or shower, warming frostbite body parts hot water.
- Rub the skin with alcohol, fat, towel, especially snow — Blood inflow to the skin provokes «Obrasting» vital organs and aggravate circulatory disruption.
- Use for warming the affected outdoor fire, hot objects, lay it on the oven and to the battery.
What to do in case of supercooling?
- When the first signs of supercooling, it is necessary to stop heat transfer, that is, pull out a man from cold water, snow, to lead into a warm room, remove wet freezing clothes, put on dry and warm, burst into the blanket.
- With cutting inhibition and absence of consciousness, signs of frostbite 2-4 degrees need to cause a brigade «Ambulance».
- Warming the victim should be from the inside with hot tea or milk. Do not give coffee and alcohol, they will cause the expansion of surface vessels and blood outflow to the skin, which will worsen blood circulation in the internal organs and aggravate heart activities.
- Warming bath. The initial water temperature should not exceed 37 0C, then for 30 minutes it should be increased to 40 0WITH. As soon as the body temperature rises to 34 0C, the reception of the bath should be stopped, wipe the skin dry with a soft towel, put on dry warm clothes, wrapped in a victorious blanket.
- In the field, you can warm the person by siting his body wrapped in matter with hot water bubbles or heated stones. To increase blood temperature, warm items better to apply to the back of the head, to the axillary and inguinal regions. If undergraduated «Ged» No, you can warm the victim to the warmth of your body.
It is necessary to immediately seek medical help if the victim has a strong irrepressible trembling, slowed down, pale cold skin, if he slows down, does not respond to questions.
How to avoid overall supercooling?
- In frosty weather, clothes should be multi-layered, air «Pasters» between layers help keep warm. Mittens must be double, on thin socks you should wear warm, under the jacket there must be a sweater, shirt and underwear. Good out — Term underwear and special winter costumes.
- Shoes are preferably on a thick flexible sole with a wide nose, it must be dry and free so that you can move your fingers.
- In open areas of the body and face apply a fat cream designed specifically to protect the skin from frost. From cosmetics it is better to refuse or use fatty.
- Since when contact with the skin, cold metal can cause frostbite, it is better to remove all metal decorations.
- Do not go outside with poor well-being and an empty stomach.
- It is necessary to refuse to eat alcohol and smoking.
- On the frost you need to try to move, do not sit and do not lie in the snow.