myocardial infarction

Content

  • What it is?
  • Why it happens?
  • What if this happens?
  • Symptoms and diagnosis of heart attack
  • Treatment
  • Rehabilitation after heart attack
  • prevention



  • What it is?

    Myocardium - is the heart muscle. In arteries,
    called coronary, it enters the blood. If
    some of these arteries clog blood clot - thrombus,
    the portion of the heart, which it feeds, is left without blood supply,
    hence, without oxygen. "Starved" of myocardial cells can
    survive best in 20-30 minutes. Then they die - that is
    infarction, necrosis area in the heart tissue. On the affected site
    scar remains.

    Recently, myocardial infarction rapidly
    "Younger". Now is not uncommon, when it affects people, barely
    thirty stepped threshold. However, in women younger than 50 years
    heart attack - a rarity. Before this milestone of their vessels reserved
    from atherosclerosis estrogen and other sex hormones.
    But with the onset of menopause women, conversely, fall ill more often than men.



    From what
    This happens?

    The main cause of the disease - atherosclerosis, which is almost
    each of us. In addition, the circumstances of life call
    (And beyond our control, and is not), in which the most likely to develop
    high:myocardial infarction

    • male;
    • dangerous for women age comes after
      50 years;
    • heredity (coronary artery disease, heart attack, stroke,
      at least one of the immediate family: parents, grandparents,
      brother, sister, especially if the disease they began
      up to 55 years);
    • high blood cholesterol (greater than 5 mmol / l
      or over 200 mg / dL);
    • smoking (one of the most significant factors
      risk!);
    • overweight and a sedentary lifestyle;
    • increase
      blood pressure (140/90 mmHg over any
      age);
    • diabetes.

    The presence of at least one of these factors
    actually increases the risk of "dating" with myocardial infarction. And
    joining each new risk factor increases the likelihood
    ill exponentially.

    They also say that
    male pattern baldness is a kind of harbinger of a heart attack,
    as one of the factors is the increased appearance of bald
    androgen levels, in the case of the body hormonal fluctuations
    It responds to changes in blood hormone levels rise
    pressure and increase cholesterol levels in the blood.



    What if this happens?

    Atherosclerosis -
    the process by which some are deposited in the wall of the large arteries
    fats (cholesterol and other lipids), if they contain an excess
    in blood. Those places on the vessel wall, especially where concentrations of lipid
    many are called atherosclerotic plaques.

    Plaque - most
    weak spot in the vessel wall. Especially if it is "young" and it
    I had not yet deposited calcium. In the most unexpected moment wall
    plaques, and hence, the inner shell and the heart artery can crack,
    overstrain. For the body is an alarm. Cracks it tends
    heal a blood clot.

    Therefore, the damaged spot
    immediately begins to clot blood. Clot formation resembles
    rolling from the mountain a snowball. If he does not interfere, the thrombus is very
    rapidly grows until it closes the entire lumen of the artery. Then the blood flow
    for it stops cell death begins and develops a heart attack
    infarction. The larger the artery, which closed the clot, the more cells
    infarction die.

    The integrity of the atherosclerotic plaque may break the heart palpitations and high blood pressure.

    A heart attack can
    begin during the severe physical or emotional stress,
    but it often develops for no apparent reason, as it were, myocardial infarctionfrom scratch
    place. Possible - even in a dream. But the most "favorite" of his time - early
    morning.

    Depending on the size of infarcts share
    on macrofocal in which necrosis extends through the entire thickness
    cardiac muscle, and small focal. More dangerous macrofocal infarcts
    anterior myocardial wall.

    Myocardial rear or side walls,
    especially melkoochagovogo (not full thickness), the consequences are not so
    traumatic. The scar on the heart muscle remains for life.
    Resolved he can not, and myocardial heart "remembers"
    always.



    Symptoms and diagnosis of heart attack

    The first sign,
    allowing suspected heart attack, the pain usually becomes violent
    chest, that is in the middle of the chest. Usually able
    rest; crushes, burns, compresses, can be given in the arm, shoulder, back,
    jaw and neck.

    When angina like pain occurs during
    load as myocardial it stronger and more frequent starts alone
    and passes received after consecutive 3 nitroglycerin tablets
    (1 tablet sublingually every 5 minutes).

    With these
    signs call "ambulance" immediately. The ability to endure in this
    case - a dangerous enemy. Sometimes the disease is manifested by vomiting or
    abdominal discomfort, disruption of the heart or difficulty
    breathing, loss of consciousness.

    Yes, it does happen:
    man suffered a heart attack, even without realizing it. So-called
    painless form of myocardial infarction is more common in people suffering
    diabetes. The changes occurring in myocardial clearly visible
    on elektrokardiograme. To clarify the area and the extent of damage can
    It is scheduled ultrasound of the heart (echocardiography), which enables
    see structural changes. In some cases, your doctor may recommend
    carrying out scintigraphy.



    Treatment

    In order not to risk the slightest
    suspected heart attack doctors send the person to the emergency
    hospital department. And the sooner, the better. It is only within
    the first few hours, introducing the special preparations can be dissolved
    "Fresh" blood clot and restore blood flow in a coronary artery. Then
    should prevent the formation of new blood clots.

    For this purpose,
    medications that slow blood clotting. One of the most reliable
    funds - acetylsalicylic acid, that is, ordinary aspirin.
    It reduces the number of complications and prolongs the life of those who have suffered
    heart attack.

    Often used in the treatment of beta-blockers. These
    drugs reduce myocardial oxygen demand and, consequently, save
    heart muscle cells from destruction, reduce the size of necrosis.
    At the same time they make the heart work more economical that myocardial
    very important.

    In recent years, for the treatment of myocardial used
    not only medicines. In particular, so-called invasive methods
    It refers coronary balloon angioplasty. Angioplasty is indicated for
    drug therapy inefficiency. In another case, a heart surgeon
    to offer coronary artery bypass surgery.

    First
    days required strict bed rest. At this time, damaged
    the heart can not withstand even a minimyocardial infarctionmal loads. Previously, people,
    myocardial, did not rise from the bed a few weeks. Today
    term bed rest significantly reduced.

    But still,
    at least three days after a heart attack have to lie in bed under the supervision of
    doctors. Then allowed to sit up later, to walk. starts
    recovery, adaptation to a new, "postinfarction" life.



    Rehabilitation after heart attack

    Possible after
    myocardial return to usual life? Firmly say "yes" or "no"
    difficult. After all, it at everyone: one works as a loader, and the other
    He spends his days behind a desk. First it will be difficult to engage
    usual activities, and the second will be little in the way. Besides,
    complications, and do heart attacks are different.

    recovery
    after a heart attack lasts for several months. After all, the disease
    no joke, it needs to revise its way of life, something in it
    change.

    Rehabilitation begins in the hospital, where passing a premium
    drugs and the passage of physiotherapy
    gradually increase the intensity of exercise. (Special
    note - the word "gradually").

    In no case do not force events.
    Classes are physical therapy, walking, first on a flat surface,
    then - on the stairs.

    By the way, the ladder - a good test
    readiness for active life. If the patient is at a medium pace
    climb to the fourth floor, without feeling chest pain or shortness of breath, then,
    recovery is successful. For a more accurate assessment of the
    often use a sample from the dosage load. Usually it is performed
    biking - bicycle ergometer or "treadmill".

    how
    long should I take the medication? The answer is one: all my life! Even
    feeling fine. Precisely because it is beautiful, that is constantly
    taken drugs help the heart.

    Is it possible to have sex
    life after a heart attack? Without any hesitation ask this question
    doctor. Everything will depend on how you move
    physicsmyocardial infarctioncal load (a sexual act - is the load, and considerable).

    But there
    and common to all the rules of which it is necessary to remember that sexy
    contact ended pleasure rather than a new heart attack.

    Firstly, it must be familiar with the partner, second,
    in familiar surroundings, and thirdly, by selecting a position for sexual intercourse,
    it is necessary to choose one in which the load is minimal - for example,
    on its side.



    prevention

    From some of the risk factors (gender
    and heredity) can not escape. But all the other well
    amenable to our efforts! Maintain normal blood pressure,
    as well as keep an eye on the weather - for example, for people with high
    blood pressure is dangerous heat and geomagnetic
    storm.

    Normalize blood sugar levels. Move more! all
    not necessarily "run from a heart attack," a walk in the fresh enough
    air for at least 5.6 kilometers per day. It is very important to stop smoking - it
    one of the most "aggressive" risk factors. Try to lose
    the weight.

    What should be the normal weight? Let's count: your weight
    in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.
    The resulting number is called the body mass index. We must strive
    to ensure that it did not exceed 26.

    Meals should be a minimum
    in animal fat and cholesterol. More fruits and vegetables.
    Instead of fat pork - white poultry meat, butter substitute
    sunflower, fat - fish. Such a diet can reduce not only the
    cholesterol, but also costs.

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