Myocarditis: causes, treatment, prevention


  • Causes of myocarditis
  • The symptoms of myocarditis
  • Principles of treatment of myocarditis
  • Myocarditis: prevention and prognosis

  • Causes of myocarditis

    Myocarditis - an inflammation of the tunicaheart (myocardium). Myocarditis may develop independently or be a complication of other infectious diseases. The most common myocarditis occurs in persons aged 20-40 years, men more often than women. The most common cause of myocarditis - an infection, especially viral, but sometimes bacterial. In some cases of myocarditis caused by intake of drugs and other drugs, in this case, myocarditis is toxic-allergic character.
    When viral myocarditis virus infects cellsinfarction. First, the virus multiplies, which is accompanied by an inflammatory response in the myocardium. The virus then leaves the myocardial cell and starts to circulate in the blood. In bacterial myocarditis myocardial cells damaged by products of bacterial activity. Myocarditis may develop both during infection, and after it.

    The symptoms of myocarditis

    Against the background of major infectious diseasesMyocarditis can occur malosimptomno, masking the underlying disease. In some cases, symptoms of myocarditis is very difficult, often in the form of heart failure.

    Myocarditis patients feel palpitations,unpleasant sensations in the heart, weakness, shortness of breath, fainting may occur. The body temperature slightly increased, the pulse quickened, weak filling, the patient was pale. Blood pressure due to concomitant vascular insufficiency decreased. Chronic myocarditis is characterized by the development of congestive heart failure.

    Principles of treatment of myocarditis

    Myocarditis: causes, treatment, preventionWhen myocarditis patient must comply with strict bed rest until the complete cessation of cardiac manifestations of the disease. Motor recovery period is carried out gradually.
    In the acute phase of the disease is assigned a dietexcluding meat dishes. Restrict fluid intake and salt, especially in case of cardiac failure. Food should be easily digestible and fortified. Meals should be frequent but small portions. When bacterial infection antibiotics are appointed, and during viral infection appointed cytostatics. Also held desensitizing and anti-inflammatory therapy. Prescribe drugs that improve the metabolic processes in the myocardium. The rehabilitation period should take place in cardiological sanatorium. Within two to three years, the patient should be under medical observation in the clinic.

    After the disappearance of edema, dyspnea at rest, etc. prescribe exercise therapy under close medical supervision. Begin with breathing exercises and exercises for small and medium-sized groups of muscles of hands and feet. At the well-being of the patient volume of gymnastic exercises is gradually expanding, and in mild exercise therapy is prescribed from the first days of the disease.

    Myocarditis: prevention and prognosis

    Prevention is myocarditisprevention and timely treatment of diseases that cause myocarditis. Particular attention is paid to the fight against foci of chronic infection (tonsillitis, sinusitis, etc.). In some cases, recovery from myocarditis may be incomplete, in which case the change is stored in residual myocardium.

    Prognosis depends on the origin of myocarditis: process, which arose against the backdrop of an infectious disease, usually ends in recovery of the patient. Rheumatic and infectious-allergic myocarditis tends to the re-emergence (relapses). However, clinical supervision and timely prophylactic treatment of patients with these forms of myocarditis prevents relapses.

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