Biochemical analysis of blood - one of the mostcommon in modern medicine research, by which to evaluate the body's metabolism and internal organs -. kidney, liver, pancreas, etc. As a rule, during this analysis examines a sufficiently large number of parameters (state of blood cells, biochemical, immunological, hormonal indicators).
Thanks to the versatile diagnosticOpportunities blood chemistry used in many areas of medicine: therapy, endocrinology, urology, gastroenterology, cardiology, gynecology and others. Set the test parameters for specifying the diagnosis depends on the disease and is determined by the attending physician. In addition, biochemical analysis of blood is needed for the early diagnosis of diseases, as it allows to identify irregularities in the internal organs, even when there are no external symptoms.
There are certain rules of biochemicalblood test. It is statistically established indicators for healthy people of a certain age and gender. Deviation from these figures - a symptom of various disorders in the body activities, malfunction of any organs or systems.
The value of the basic indicators
Standard blood chemistry includes the definition of a large number of indicators. Let's try to decipher some of them.
Glucose - the main component of carbohydrate metabolism. Its level may be lowered in some endocrine diseases, abnormal liver function. Increased glucose observed in diabetes. Sometimes the jump of this indicator may be in the early hours of a stroke, heart attack, in trauma, infection, pancreatitis.
Bilirubin - a product of processing in the liver of oldred blood cells (RBCs). Knowing this figure, you can determine how the liver. Increased total bilirubin - a symptom of jaundice, hepatitis, biliary obstructions (for example, gallstones or a tumor). The high numbers of bilirubin can be determined after a long low-calorie diet. If the increased content of conjugated bilirubin, is likely sick liver.
The total protein and its fractions
total protein level decreases in diseasesliver, kidney, prolonged inflammation, starvation. Increasing the total protein content can be observed in some diseases of the blood diseases and conditions involving dehydration.
For a more accurate diagnosis of disease determines the protein fractions: albumin and globulins.
Falling levels of albumin may indicatediseases of the liver, kidneys or intestines. Typically, this indicator decreased in diabetes, severe allergies, burns, inflammatory processes. Elevated albumin index - a signal of violations of the immune system or metabolism.
Increased gamma-globulin level indicates the presence of infection in the body and inflammation. The decline may be evidence of immunodeficiency.
Increasing the content of α1-globulin observed in acute inflammatory processes.
The level of α2-globulin may be elevated in inflammatory and neoplastic processes, kidney disease, and decrease in pancreatitis and diabetes.
Changing the number of β-globulin is usually observed in disorders of fat metabolism.
C-reactive protein is not normally practicallydetected. However, inflammation (appendicitis, pneumonia, etc.), Infections, tumors, its content increases. The definition of this indicator is of great importance for rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis. It can help you determine the severity of disease and the effectiveness of treatment.
Cholesterol and lipoprotein
On fat metabolism is judged by the content of cholesterol, lipoproteins, triglycerides.
Increased cholesterol level signalsthe development of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, vascular disease and stroke. Cholesterol levels also increased for patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, reduced thyroid function. Cholesterol becomes smaller with an increase rate of thyroid function, congestive heart failure, acute infectious diseases, tuberculosis, acute pancreatitis and liver disease, certain types of anemia, exhaustion.
If the content of β-lipoprotein less than normal, this suggests hepatic dysfunction. Elevated levels of this index indicates atherosclerosis, disorders of lipid metabolism, as well as diabetes.
Triglycerides - blood fat molecules, theircontent reflects a predisposition to atherosclerosis. The level of triglycerides can judge the power features. Increases in the use of it is a large amount of animal fats. High figures are typical for some diseases of the kidneys, reduced thyroid function. The sharp increase in this index indicates inflammation of the pancreas.
Urea and creatine,
Urea - a product of the cleavage of proteins in a healthy person that is excreted by the kidneys. Therefore, elevated levels of urea indicate kidney disease.
Increased creatinine levels indicates a violation of the kidneys, diabetes, diseases of the skeletal muscles.
The level of uric acid in the blood may increase in gout, leukemia, acute infections, liver disease, kidney-stone disease, diabetes, chronic eczema, psoriasis.
Change amylase level indicates diseasepancreas. This rate is usually increased in acute pancreatitis, pancreatic duct blockage stones, spikes or tumor. Sometimes the level of amylase increases in renal failure. Lowering blood levels of amylase may indicate hepatitis, raising the level of thyroid hormones.
Alkaline phosphatase, ALT, AST, γ-GT
Increased alkaline phosphatase indicates the liver and bile ducts.
At impaired hepatic function indicates an increase in indicators such as ALT, AST, γ-GT.
Changing the concentration of phosphorus and calcium in the bloodconstitutes a violation of mineral metabolism, what happens when kidney disease, rickets, certain hormonal disorders. The calcium content in the blood is increased in diseases of the thyroid gland, as well as in some forms of cancer.
Changing the concentration of potassium, sodium and chlorine adversely affect the internal organs, especially the heart.
Having the biochemical analysisblood easily compare the performance of its analysis to the norm. But on the basis of these data can not diagnose yourself. Give accurate and correct interpretation of assay results can only physician, comparing them with the patient's complaints and symptoms of the disease.