Anemia: causes, types, treatment

Content

  • Types and causes of anemia
  • Iron-deficiency anemia
  • Anemia and Pregnancy
  • Anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
  • sickle cell anemia
  • thalassemia
  • Anemia caused by blood loss
  • pernicious anemia
  • aplastic anemia
  • Treatment of anemia



  • Types and causes of anemia

    Anemia is defined as
    "Pathological decrease in hemoglobin concentration of red blood cells." Anemia
    It is caused by deficiency of iron or vitamins, hemolysis (destruction) or shortening the duration of the life of red blood cells
    blood component normal 4 months
    bleeding and
    also due to inherited or acquired defects or diseases.
    Identify different types of anemia, each of which has its own reasons and
    treatments.



    Iron-deficiency anemia

    Anemia: causes, types, treatmentIron-deficiency anemia -
    the most common form of this condition. When iron deficiency bone
    marrow produces small pale red blood cells (so-called microcytes), depleted
    hemoglobin. Causes of iron deficiency: poor absorption of iron
    body, inadequate intake of iron, pregnancy, growth leaps in
    teens or blood loss due to a heavy period or
    internal bleeding. The disease is especially prevalent among women
    childbearing age due to menstrual blood loss, but also because of
    increasing the body's need for iron during pregnancy
    (Moreover, women have less iron stores than men). Iron
    Anemia results in lower iron concentration in erythrocytes, which is manifested in
    weakness.

    It has been observed,
    that is suffering from iron-deficiency anemia is almost 20% of women of childbearing age and
    50% of pregnant women. Patients with pernicious anemia often feel cold and
    They can not get warm - the iron plays a key role in temperature regulation
    body, so its deficiency results in an inability to retain heat. Besides,
    insufficient supply of oxygen to tissues gives rise to feelings
    fatigue and weakness. In patients with iron deficiency anemia pale skin, they
    often suffer from shortness of breath, dizziness and headaches. Blood tests allow
    determine the level of hemoglobin and serum iron and
    blood iron binding capacity. Vegetarians are at risk of developing
    anemia if not enrich the diet sufficient quantity
    Natural sources of iron - broccoli, spinach and so on.



    Anemia and Pregnancy

    Iron deficiency during
    pregnancy leads to anemia. Therefore, it is important to be tested for
    anemia at the first prenatal examination. During pregnancy, very
    it is important to consume the necessary amount of iron the body. As fetal growth
    iron requirement increases. Approximately 20 week gestation
    iron stores in the body of a woman are exhausted. Iron deficiency is not reflected
    only on the expectant mother's health, but also on the health of the child.



    Anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells

    This type of anemia is caused by
    destruction of red blood cells. This includes hemolytic anemia,
    autoimmune anemia, sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.



    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    Sometimes the bone marrow does not
    It is doing its job and can not produce enough
    cells, especially if there is a premature destruction of erythrocytes. it
    the condition is known as "hemolytic anemia". Hemolytic anemia can
    It is caused by many reasons - in some cases, it is caused by infections or
    certain medications, such as antibiotics, destructive
    erythrocytes. Triggers hemolytic anemia can also be stressors,
    eg, snakebite, or insect, as well as some products.

    When autoimmune hemolytic
    anemia, the immune system attacks the red blood cells, mistaking them for alien
    organisms. Hemolytic disease occurs in infants and, if the immune
    Mother's system attacks the red blood cells of the child. The destruction of red blood cells may also
    trigger vascular grafts, artificial heart valves, cancer,
    severe burns, the action of chemicals, and high blood pressure
    a bleeding disorder.



    sickle cell anemia

    Anemia: causes, types, treatmentSickle cell anemia is also
    It caused by destruction of red blood cells. In the normal state erythrocytes are
    round shape and soft texture. Red blood cells easily pass through the blood
    vessels and carry oxygen to all tissues of the body. sickle cell
    different from normal red blood cells in that they are much harder and
    have an irregular shape. Their shape prevents them to move easily through the blood
    vessels, so they get stuck in small blood vessels, making it difficult to
    normal blood circulation. Meanwhile, some organs (brain, heart, kidneys)
    It requires continuous and constant inflow of blood.

    Despite the fact that the body
    attacks and destroys these sickle cells, it can not produce new
    cells fast enough to replace destroyed. This reduces the
    concentration of red blood cells, which in turn, leads to anemia.
    Sickle cell anemia is generally caused by genetic defects or
    hereditary disease. A child patient with sickle-cell anemia,
    I inherited from parents defective gene with hemoglobin.

    symptoms
    sickle-cell anemia: fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, rapid
    palpitations, slow sexual development, weakened immune system,
    susceptibility to infections, pain in the penis, pain in the chest and lowering
    fertility.



    thalassemia

    Thalassemia - a severe form
    anemia, in which red blood cells are rapidly destroyed and iron
    It settles in skin and vital organs. Anemia is caused by a decrease in this type of
    the production of hemoglobin, or violation of the mechanism of its production. Hemoglobin -
    molecule consisting of erythrocytes. The hemoglobin protein chains contained two
    type - alpha and beta chains. Any deficiency in these chains causes a disturbance
    the mechanism, size and shape of erythrocytes.

    There are two types of thalassemia -
    alpha-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia. The form of thalassemia is determined defective
    hemoglobin molecule. Both forms of thalassemia are caused by genetic
    disorders, alpha-thalassemia linked to chromosome 16, and beta-thalassemia - a
    chromosome 11. Thalassaemia is inherited and caused by genetic
    impairment. In fact, it is the most common genetic disease in
    world. Since Thalassemia is transmitted genetically, parents can pass it
    the disease to children. The genes that cause thalassemia, recessive inherited by
    autosome. This means that the child develops only thalassemia
    If there is a defective gene in both parents.



    Anemia caused by blood loss

    The cause of anemia can also be
    severe blood loss. A large number of red blood cells can lose blood when
    or prolonged bleeding unnoticed. Such bleeding often occurs
    as a result of diseases of the gastrointestinal system, for example, ulcers, hemorrhoids, gastritis
    (Inflammation of the stomach) and cancer. Chronic bleeding can also occur in
    case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin
    or Motrin. Often, blood loss is due to menstruation and childbirth, especially
    with heavy menstrual bleeding.



    pernicious anemia

    pernicious anemia - this
    classic manifestation of deficiency of vitamin B12.
    Vitamin B12 found in meat, milk, dairy products and
    eggs. Particularly susceptible to deficiency of this vitamin, and bone marrow tissue
    nervous system; in the absence of treatment of anemia and degeneration
    nerves. A characteristic feature of this anemia - formation in the bone marrow instead
    Conventional red cell progenitors anomalous large cells
    m. n. megaloblasts. The increased content megaloblasts
    cytoplasm, nucleus but underdeveloped; they are not able to turn
    and killed erythrocytes in the bone marrow. On this basis
    pernicious anemia classified as megaloblastic anemia. AT
    1926 Dzh.Mino U.Merfi and found a positive effect of extracts
    liver with pernicious anemia. This is an important observation prompted the
    Studies leading to the explanation of this effect and the nature of
    disease. It has been shown that the disease is based on the innate
    inability to secrete stomach substance (called intrinsic factor)
    necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the intestine. Pernicious anemia is most common
    adults and is associated with atrophy of the stomach.
    Identify pernicious anemia
    It helps ordinary blood test. The analysis determines the absorption Schilling
    vitamin B12 in the intestine. Sources of vitamin B12 and
    Folic acid: milk, eggs, meat, shellfish and poultry.



    aplastic anemia

    Anemia: causes, types, treatment
    Aplastic
    Anemia is caused by the body's inability to produce red blood cells
    in sufficient amounts. At this anemia
    in bone marrow tissue is virtually absent forming blood
    cells. In some cases, the cause is exposure to ionizing
    radiation such as X-ray, or toxic substances, including some
    drug compounds; in other cases, the cause remains unknown.
    Congenital aplastic anemia (Fanconi syndrome) is caused by
    unexplained failure of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells
    .

    Aplastic
    Anemia occurs suddenly or develops gradually. common symptoms
    This type of anemia: fatigue, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, paleness, rash
    and zazhivaemost bad cuts. Aplastic
    anemia and hereditary. If both parents are carriers
    defective gene (congenital hypoplastic
    anemia), it is not excluded that the disease will be transferred to children.
    Aplastic
    Anemia is diagnosed based on the results of blood and bone marrow.
    This is a serious disease that requires immediate treatment with antibiotics.

    Also
    sometimes carried out the bone marrow transplant and blood transfusion. sick
    insulated to prevent transmission of infection and reduce the symptoms of anemia.
    Due to poor blood clotting, patients with aplastic anemia are prone to
    severe bleeding. Diseases subject to equally men and women,
    regardless of age and nationality.



    Treatment of anemia

    Treatment depends on the nature of the factors which have caused anemia.
    Best results are observed with the introduction of missing certain substances
    such as iron with iron deficiency anemia, vitamin B12 at
    pernicious anemia and folic acid in the sprue (disease,
    characterized by malabsorption processes in the gut
    and accompanied by megaloblastic anemia).

    Anemia is caused by a decrease in red blood cell production and
    arising at such chronic diseases as cancer, infection, arthritis,
    kidney disease and hypothyroidism are often mild and do not require
    special treatment. Treatment of the underlying disease should positively affect
    and anemia. In some cases it is necessary cancel preparations
    inhibiting the formation of blood, - antibiotics or other chemotherapeutic
    means.

    Blood transfusions are usually shows only
    in urgent cases, requiring the recovery of circulating blood volume
    and the amount of hemoglobin, as well as exacerbation of chronic anemia
    in the absence of other therapeutic agents. In rare anemias,
    the cause of which remains unclear, sometimes helping derivatives
    adrenal corticosteroids and male sex hormones,
    vitamin B6 and specially treated liver extracts.

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