Causes of B-12 deficiency anemia
B12 deficiency anemia occurs when there is nobiermerin - gastromukoproteina produced by the gastric mucosa. Biermerin necessary for mastering the external factor Castle - vitamin B12 deficiency at which the bone marrow is disrupted maturation of erythroblasts, which are then transformed into mature red blood cells. At the same immature cells (megaloblasts) die, the blood comes defective red blood cells - megalocytes undergoing premature hemolysis (destruction).
The causes of vitamin B12 deficiency can beatrophy of the gastric mucosa (the most common cause), gastric resection, inflammatory bowel disease, destruction of its specific areas, parasitic infestation, lack of vitamin B12 in food (found in meat, beans).
Symptoms of anemia
Classical B12-deficiency anemia(Malignant or pernicious) occurs in people over the age of 40 years. The disease develops gradually and is characterized by lesions of the hematopoietic tissue. When B12-deficiency anemia patients concerned about shortness of breath, weakness, palpitations, lack of appetite, burning pains in the tongue, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, paresthesias, irritability, depression, disorders of color perception.
Patients identified gait abnormalities and cutaneoussensitivity function (anemic), heart murmur, smoothed and redness of the tongue papillae ( "polish language"), loss of reflexes, possible fever. The liver and spleen are enlarged. The disease occurs with exacerbations.
Severe complication is anemic coma,which is manifested by loss of consciousness, fever, sometimes fever, frequent shallow breathing, tachycardia, decreased blood pressure, a sharp drop in hemoglobin. The skin is pale in patients with mild jaundice shade and moist. Furthermore, there may be convulsions.
hyperchromic anemia observed in the blood -reduction in the number of red blood cells, saturated hemoglobin, red blood cells are larger (megalocytes), marked leukopenia (reduction in white blood cell count) and thrombocytopenia (reduced platelet count). In the bone marrow revealed megaloblasts in large quantities.
Treatment of the disease
Treatment consists in the introduction of cyanocobalamin(Vitamin B12) intramuscularly. With anemic coma patients urgently hospitalized. The prognosis for a favorable treatment promptly initiated. Patients B12-deficiency anemia are at the dispensary. To prevent recurrence prescribe injections of vitamin B12.