Chronic rhinitis - is a fairly large groupdiseases characterized by common symptoms: basic - difficulty in nasal breathing, nasal discharge, decreased sense of smell. As patients are concerned about the following symptoms - itching and burning sensation in the nose, sneezing, headache, fatigue and drowsiness, dry nose, formation of crusts, a sense of odor, slight epistaxis, the accumulation of thick mucus in the nose and throat, irritation of the nose and upper mouth, snoring and poor sleep quality. There are many classifications of chronic rhinitis.
Here is the most appropriate (in my opinion):
- Atrophic (including Ozen)
- Other forms of rhinitis
Before examining each form more,it should be noted that similar symptoms and can cause other diseases of the nose and nasopharynx (nasal septum deformity, chronic sinusitis, nasal polyps, tumors, adenoids, and some other diseases).
Catarrhal rhinitis - a diseasecharacterized by a constant catarrhal (not purulent) inflammation of the nasal mucosa. The factors of this disease include high bacterial contamination of mucous membrane, frequent respiratory viral infections (some scholars believe that after recovery of the virus does not die, and continues to exist in the cells of the mucous membrane, causing ill-defined symptoms), decreased immune system, high pollution inhaled various kinds of air dust and combustion products. Symptoms - difficulty in nasal breathing, nasal discharge, decreased sense of smell, usually expressed moderately. Treatment consists of the appointment of local antibacterial agents, mucolytics, nasal shower, binding agents, receiving anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy. In a subsequent immunization is often used inhaled vaccine.
Allergic rhinitis - a disease associated with a hit of the allergen (substances causing allergic reactions) in the nasal mucosa.
Allergic rhinitis may occur seasonally(Due to the flowering of certain species of plants) or year-round. Allergic rhinitis is often associated with asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, urticaria and other allergic diseases. Often, the result is the development of allergic rhinitis polypoid rhinosinusitis (polyps) and hypertrophy of the inferior turbinates. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (in addition to the core) are: itching and tickling in the nose, redness of the skin of the nose, profuse clear watery discharge, watery eyes, sneezing. Currently, the most commonly for the treatment of allergic rhinitis appointed antihistamines and nasal corticosteroids. It is also recommended to determine the sensitivity to allergens because of possible allergen vaccination revealed that may further protect from allergic reactions to the allergens.
Vasomotor rhinitis - is a functionalcondition associated with dysregulation of vascular tone under the mucosa of the lower nasal turbinates. The normal inferior turbinates regulate the volume of air inhaled, increasing or decreasing in size (due to the blood supply) in response to its temperature and humidity, as well as vascular tone in one of the lower nasal turbinate more than the other (the tone is changing about 1 times per hour) - the so-called "Nasal cycle". When vasomotor rhinitis nasal cycle, or lengthened or shortened or even on both sides of vascular tone low. Characteristic signs of vasomotor rhinitis is nasal Alternating one-half of the nose, or the appearance of fullness when receiving a lying position on the other side, which lies a man.
Vasomotor rhinitis is often develops in people withneuro-circulatory dystonia, in hypotensive patients, in patients with asthenic-vegetative syndrome, in some endocrine diseases, often at a young age or preklimaktericheskom. Treatment of vasomotor rhinitis - a problem quite complicated, there are many ways depending on the underlying pathology. Hardening and physiotherapy do not give good results. Currently, the most commonly used various kinds vnutrirakovinnyh injections and surgical treatments. By vnutrirakovinnym injections include vnutrirakovinnye blockade (usually with novocaine), the introduction of sclerosing agents and the introduction of long-acting glucocorticoids, these treatments also do not have a high efficiency and can be recommended as the initial treatment. Surgical treatments are also quite diverse. We list them from the oldest to the most recent: submucosa vasotomy, galvanokaustika, ultrasonic disintegration, vnutrirakovinnaya radioelektrokoagulyatsiya, laser photodestruction. All of these methods are about equally effective, and their pros and cons, galvanokaustika now hardly used, as recognized by the "crippling" transaction. The meaning of all these operations is to ensure that destroy submucosal vessels of the lower nasal turbinate and not allow the shells to grow.
Atrophic rhinitis is characterized by the formation of athe bow of a large amount of dry crusts, sensation of dryness, light traumatization of the nasal mucosa, can change the sense of smell (odor that does not feel the people around), minor nosebleeds. The appearance of atrophic rhinitis is associated with a decrease in the thickness of the nasal mucosa, disturbance of the transport function, the replacement of normal epithelium (ciliated) on the flat atrophy of the olfactory filaments of the olfactory nerve, a violation of secretion of nasal mucus and quality. Causes of atrophic rhinitis is often a lack of vitamins, iron deficiency, occupational hazards (working in hot, dry conditions, various types of dust), genetic factors (in such cases, atrophic rhinitis combined with atrophic pharyngitis and atrophic gastritis, which usually happens in women) and also after too radical surgery on the nasal structures. Treatment of atrophic rhinitis consists of identifying common factors causing disease and their correction, as well as local treatment, including drug improves regeneration and trophism of mucous membrane, reducing the viscosity of the nasal mucus, biostimulants and physiotherapy.
Özen (stinking cold) - a disease veryrare in our country, but quite often logged in the tropical and subtropical countries with a dry climate. At Ozen allocated a specific microorganism - pathogen klebsiela ozeny also play the role of genetic factors. Özen characterized vyrazheniyshey atrophy not only affects the mucous membrane and the bony structures of the nose, a large amount of crusts with putrid odor, perceptible in the distance, the face of the patient has the characteristic "ozenozny" appearance. ozeny Treatment usually consists of the use of antimicrobials and surgical treatment aimed at increasing nasal resistance and recreate the normal anatomy of the nasal cavity. Hypertrophic rhinitis is often caused by other types of chronic rhinitis (except atrophic) and is characterized by the growth of the connective tissue under the mucous membrane (soedenitelnotkannaya hypertrophy) or bone (bone hypertrophy). Treatment of hypertrophic rhinitis surgery - different types turbinotomy.
Medical rhinitis, as the name implies,develops in the medication. It is drugs that reduce blood pressure, tranquilizers, antipsychotics, alcohol. A special place is occupied vasoconstrictor nasal drops, since they most often cause drug-induced rhinitis. We do not recommend long-term use of vasoconstrictor nose drops elderly and suffering from cardiovascular disease because these drugs can cause increased pressure and increased heart rate (tachycardia). Treatment is reduced to remove the drug, causing drug-induced rhinitis, if it is possible and does not inflict harm, or the selection of another method of treatment. In case of failure to cancel the drug treatment may be similar to the treatment of vasomotor rhinitis. In the case according to the vasoconstrictor drops recommended phasing out of them, the reception in the case of emergency only, burying his nose in nat. solution, and in case of efficiency can be produced from one species vnutrirakovinnoy degradation. Other forms of chronic rhinitis are of interest only to specialists and can occur in some infectious diseases, the action of chemicals and ionizing radiation.