Addison's disease, the symptoms and their manifestations


Addison's disease, the symptoms and their manifestationsAddison's disease should be considered aschronic adrenal insufficiency, or gipokortitsizm, a condition which is rare, can occur in both men and women, usually between the ages of 30-50 years. In this disease, says the loss of the ability of the adrenal glands to produce the required amount of the hormone cortisol. The name given to the disease by the name of the British physician who described it for the first time, T. Addison.

Addison's disease can be configured withdestruction of healthy tissue of the adrenal glands, it is possible in tuberculous lesions or if damaged by chemicals. The disease can be the result of central hormonal dysfunction, when the anterior pituitary produces insufficient amount of adrenocorticotropic hormone.

Specialists Endocrinologists among the reasonsoccurrence of autoimmune Addison's disease celebrate the defeat, the consequences of long-term hormone replacement therapy, the impact of fungal diseases, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, bleeding in the adrenal glands, syphilis and HIV, but more often it is a complex genetic defect.

About the symptoms of Addison's disease, causes and symptoms

Symptoms of this disease may remainundetected for many years until a certain hour "X", until there is an illness or stress, which resulted in increases the body's need glucocorticoids. Gradually increases and takes the form of chronic fatigue and muscle weakness, and the patient notices the weight and loss of appetite, often a vomiting and nausea accompanied by diarrhea and abdominal pain. There orthostatic hypotension, characterized by reducing the pressure in the standing position. The very sick and surrounding increasingly notice the manifestation of dysphoria, which is expressed in increased irritability, unreasonable temper, constant anger and frequent depressions. The patient feels a craving for salty and sour foods as a result - and very thirsty, drink plenty of liquids. It becomes obvious tremor of the hands and the head, the patient feels tachycardia - rapid heartbeat and growing concern, there is dysphagia - swallowing disorder process. Women have become irregular menstruation, male impotence is observed with frequent urination and excessive amount of urine. There paresthesia and sensitivity infringement, even paralysis of the limbs and most obvious symptom - Increased skin pigmentation in patches in the field of open direct rays of the sun, the so-called "melasma Addison."

"Addisonichesky" or adrenal crisis

Sometimes, in the case of late diagnosis of the diseasesymptoms appear unexpectedly, like a condition called acute insufficiency of the adrenal cortex or addisonichesky crisis. For patients who did not receive treatment for many years, or a sharp reduction in the dose of corticosteroids, this state is dangerous and is a threat to life. Besides this crisis it is celebrated sometimes in those patients who do not suffer gipokortitsizm, but for a long time were treated with glucocorticoids in connection with other diseases, when a sharp decline in hormone doses can lead to a state of crisis.

Symptoms addisonicheskogo crisis are:

  • a sudden sharp pain in the legs, lower back, abdomen;
  • vomiting, diarrhea that can lead to shock and loss of consciousness;
  • acute psychosis;
  • decrease in blood glucose levels;
  • patina brown tint on the teeth and tongue due to iron deficiency.

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis of the disease is difficult, because manypatients with low severity of symptoms often do not go to the doctor. Treatment involves hormone replacement therapy, hydrocortisone in a strictly assigned individual doses under the control of hormone levels. In addition to drug therapy requires a diet with plenty of key nutrients, vitamins C and B. Recommended broth hips, black currants, brewer's yeast, as well as foods with high salt content of the boiled meat, fish and vegetables. Because the diet is necessary to exclude legumes, potatoes, dried fruit, coffee, cocoa, chocolate, nuts and mushrooms. With timely and adequate treatment of the disease is regarded as a favorable prognosis.

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