Obesity, regardless of its cause,accompanied by pathological changes in many of the internal organs and systems. The most common obesity leads to the development of arterial hypertension, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and reproductive disorders.
Arterial hypertension in obesity
Arterial hypertension - one of the mostcommon chronic diseases. It is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, including myocardial infarction, and the main cause of cerebrovascular diseases, including stroke.
One of the causes of arterialhypertension, along with genetic predisposition, age and sex, is overweight and obesity. In more than 50% of obese patients revealed arterial hypertension.
If the weight is above the norm, and the pressure is stableincreased (more than 140/90 mm Hg. Art.), it is not just an excuse to visit the cardiologist. This is the body's signal for an urgent change of lifestyle. This is not any increase in body weight of the patient to bear the same danger. The least favorable to the patient a combination of hypertension with the so-called abdominal obesity, where fat is deposited primarily in the abdominal area.
A simple marker of abdominal type of obesityis an increase in waist circumference in men over 102 cm in women -. more than 88 cm This fat is not simply deposited in the abdominal area. Located in the abdominal cavity around the internal human organs, it is chemically and hormonally active tissue, synthesizing the hormone leptin - the hormone responsible for the development and progression of obesity, as well as highlighting the bloodstream free fatty acids are toxic to liver products. Marker of lipid metabolism in this case is to increase and decrease triglyceride levels in the blood level of "good lipid" - so-called high density lipoproteins.
The changes do not bypass the party and the vessels,broken, primarily blood clotting system, which greatly increases the risk of blood clots in the vessels of the vital organs - heart and brain. Thus, at first glance, with a little rosy patient "Zhirkov" in the abdomen and high blood pressure as it were glowing with health, but in fact - is a deeply sick man, whom hard drive, and a small exercise causes shortness of breath. The risk in this case to make a myocardial infarction or stroke is 4-6 times higher than in humans of the same age with a normal body weight and normal blood pressure. This patient and very difficult to treat. This is understandable, since the parallel need to solve several tasks: to reduce the pressure and weight of the body, normalize the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, fat, stabilize blood clotting. One has to resort to the help of many experts. But fortunately all the factors referred to in this article, are reversible, that is, they can be eliminated, or at least - good control. Knowledge of the exact mechanism of the disease and helps to take an individual approach to solving this complex problem.
Diabetes mellitus obesity
Obesity, especially abdominal, the main risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is one ofthe most important problems of modern medicine, which is connected with steadily increasing prevalence and high rate of complications and the severity of the disease.
Visceral obesity, plays an important role in thethe development of insulin resistance (lack of response to the body's cells to insulin when it is enough content in the blood). Due to the insufficient insulin action in the percentage of blood glucose increases. This, in turn, affects the selection (secretion) and insulin sensitivity of tissues to him, and this closes the vicious circle in the development of type 2 diabetes.
The main symptoms of the disease:
- increased urine output (over night)
- performance decline
- unexplained increase or decrease (in individuals with overweight) in body weight when stored appetite
- propensity to colds
Type 2 diabetes usually developsslowly, often for the first time he reveals to see a doctor about skin itching, boils, and other ailments. In a number of cases of type 2 diabetes detected, when applying on the following complications:
- blurred vision, cataract
- peripheral vascular disease (angiopathy)
- impaired renal function
- Impotence or erectile dysfunction
The diagnosis of diabetes is confirmed by laboratory diagnosis:
- 3x definition fasting blood glucose
- determining the level of glycated hemoglobin (to evaluate the state of carbohydrate metabolism in 90 days) or the level of fructosamine
- determination of glucose in urine
- Hormonal studies (level C-peptide)
The main stages of the treatment of type 2 diabetes include:
- drug therapy
- graduated exercise
- patient education and self-control
- prevention and treatment of diabetes complications
Changes in reproductive function in obesity
In women with normal hormonal homeostasisfat accumulation occurs gynoid type. In endocrine changes, including age, when the balance of sex steroids in women shifts towards androgens may formation of abdominal (android) type obesity.
The presence of obesity leads to disruptionreproductive function of women, accompanied by a high incidence of anovulation (lack of ovulation), hyperandrogenic conditions, menstrual irregularities, infertility, various hyperplasia (hyperplasia, polyps of the endometrium) at high risk of developing endometrial cancer, ovarian, breast, spontaneous abortion, complicated pregnancy and delivery.
When alimentary obesity in 6 times more likely to differmenstrual dysfunction, and almost 2 times more often - primary infertility. There is a direct correlation between the increase of body weight and severity of ovarian disorders (disorders of ovarian function).
The necessary treatment for disordersreproductive function in women with obesity is to reduce body weight while changing the hormonal profile of obese women, the menstrual cycle is restored.
There are special programs for the treatment ofmenstrual irregularities, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility in obese women, which are included in the first stage of measures aimed at reducing body weight:
- reducing diet
- physical exercise
- obesity drug therapy
- Nutritional recommendations
Achieved thereby reducing body weightit is sufficient to restore a variety of menstrual dysfunction, without any additional hormonal terapii.Esli same does not occur in the full recovery of menstrual function - the second treatment step is carried out a special hormone therapy.