Let's talk about the endocrine system
Any child who has a certainset of symptoms (loss of appetite, severe stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting), and they do not disappear for more than 24 hours should be under medical supervision to prevent the development of life-threatening effects of dehydration (severe loss of body fluids and salts). Symptoms and signs of this group of diseases include chills, cold sweats, pale skin, sunken eyes, dry tongue, indifference to the environment and a rapid pulse.
Endocrine system - a collection of glands and tissues that control the growth of certain processes in the body and sexual development.
Each gland produces hormonehormonal secretion (chemical compound) into the bloodstream. The thyroid gland controls the changes in the activity, sleep, nutrition, blood in maintaining the proper amount of essential components such as glucose. The rhythm of daily changes in the body is controlled by the interacting of certain nutritional substances of blood, hormones, brain (hypothalamus and / or pituitary gland - the pineal gland).
The endocrine system consists ofhypothalamic-pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads (ovaries and testes). Adrenal hormones involved in metabolism (the complex of chemical, physical and energetic processes taking place in living tissues and cells), maintaining water balance by controlling the salt content, the regulation of the growth of pubic hair, armpits and face (the so-called sexual vegetation) and functional activity of the autonomic nervous system.
The adrenal glands are located just above thetop of each kidney and consist of two layers, and cerebral cortex. Each layer produces certain hormones, the activity of production is regulated by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. In adrenal function is also influenced by factors such as salt intake, fasting, stress arising from injuries or diseases.
Adrenal cortex produces suchhormones like cortisone, aldosterone, corticosterone, androgens. Cortisone controls inflammatory process, stimulates enzyme activity in muscle, blood cells, and adipose tissue, sugar contributes to the deposition in the liver. Aldosterone regulates sexual growth of vegetation in adolescence, as well as the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary and reproductive systems. Epinephrine and norepinephrine, hormones adrenal medulla are involved in regulating blood pressure and metabolic functions necessary to maintain a certain level of blood sugar and neutral fatty acids. Excess of one of the hormones can lead to a rise in blood pressure.
In case of violation of the adrenal function maydevelop severe, life-threatening condition. However, with proper and timely treatment of children with acute adrenal insufficiency, usually recover completely.
Impaired function of the adrenal cortex consists of twobasic forms: gipokortitsizm when hormone production is below normal, and hypercortisolism, when production of hormones higher than normal. The most common forms are hypocorticoidism Addison's disease and congenital adrenal insufficiency. The most common form of Cushing's syndrome is Cushing's. This is the Cushing's syndrome in children and will go on it.
Cushing's syndrome is rare in breast andchildhood. The exception is when the disease is caused by the use of corticosteroids, including cortisone (hydrocortisone), prednisone (prednisone), dexamethasone, for the treatment of various diseases (such as nephrosis or severe asthma).
In the case of Cushing's syndrome is notconsequence of the use of glucocorticoids, the reason for its occurrence can be a tumor of the adrenal or pituitary glands. These tumors usually occur in the first day of a child's life and have a tendency to metastasize.
The following signs and symptoms of Cushing's syndrome is characterized for:
- growth retardation,
- decrease in muscle mass,
- muscle weakness,
- thinning of the skin,
- tendency to bruising,
- reduced glucose tolerance.
These symptoms are due to an excess of cortisone (or other synthetic glucocorticoids). It is also noted:
- excessive deposition of fat on the abdomen, chest, back, shoulders,
- so-called "moon face"
- the appearance of red or purple bands on the abdomen, chest, waist, hips.
If, due to excess production of cortisol observed water retention and sodium, it increases blood pressure and blood volume.
Most often the initial increase in the production of aldosterone and androgens is associated with a benign tumor of the adrenal gland. Increased aldosterone production causes increased blood pressure.
By increasing the production of androgens and symptomssigns similar to congenital adrenal hyperplasia, but the fusion of the labia majora is not observed, since these tumors appear only after birth. Malignant tumors of the adrenal glands, causing excessive production of cortisol, aldosterone, androgens are rare.
With timely surgical, medicationor radiological treatment, the prognosis for children with benign tumors of the pituitary and adrenal glands are usually favorable for the children with cancer tumors less favorable prognosis, since cancer cells tend to metastasize early.