Diabetes insipidus: questions and answers

Content

  • Question number 1
  • Question number 2
  • Question number 3
  • Question number 4

  • What kind of animal is - "diabetes insipidus"? How much should you drink and what is this disease? What's new appeared in the arsenal of our medicine to treat this disease? These and other common "Health" magazine readers' questions are answered by a professor, director of the Institute of Diabetes Endocrinology Research Center MI Balabolkin.


    Question number 1

    Diabetes insipidus: questions and answers - Extreme thirst began to torment me duringsevere flu. The disease is passed, and the thirst remains. I drink a day for 5-7 liters of water. Suspecting something was wrong, he turned to the endocrinologist. He diagnosed "diabetes insipidus". Tell us what this rare diabetes is different from the well-known diabetes and why occurs.
    - Differ primarily in the development of the mechanism. Diabetes is associated with "breakdowns" insular apparatus of the pancreas and the insufficient production of the hormone insulin, and in the occurrence of diabetes insipidus guilty hypothalamic hormone - vasopressin.

    This hormone - one of the key regulatorswater-electrolyte metabolism in the body. Vasopressin ensures that the water in it has always been enough. At the slightest threat of dehydration hormone delays the excretion of urine, literally "squeezing" the water from the renal tubules, and forcing them to return the fluid to the body. When, for whatever reasons, the hypothalamus produces little vasopressin or worse - completely stops producing it, developing diabetes insipidus.

    As a rule, the disease manifests itself suddenly andsharply. Tormented by an unquenchable thirst, a person can drink per day from 5 to 18 liters of fluid (at a rate of 1.5-2 liters). The body naturally seeks to bring all the excess fluid, and begins Diabetes - stands about as much as a drunk. Water and electrolyte balance is disturbed and the patient weakens, loses weight, reduced working capacity, worsen sleep and appetite. In the future, there can be serious problems with the kidneys, stomach, liver. Women may be in breach of menstrual and reproductive function in men - reduced potency and sex drive.


    In some cases, the impetus for the development of the disease are inflammation in the hypothalamus caused such acute and chronic infections, like the flu, sore throat, scarlet fever, tuberculosis ...

    Some forms of diabetes insipidus(Symptomatic) - the manifestation of another disease, such as hypothalamic tumor that compresses or destroys the structure responsible for the secretion of vasopressin, or posterior lobe of the pituitary tumor, where the "stored" antidiuretic hormone.

    Sometimes diabetes insipidus occurs as a consequence of traumatic brain injury or mental. In women, it can happen soon after a difficult birth or abortion.

    But whatever the reason, the mainsymptoms are always excessive thirst and excessive urine. Do not pay attention to them, hoping that everything is formed by itself, is not permitted! We must immediately, without delay to address to the therapist, and even better - to the endocrinologist.

    Your fears are groundless: these diseases can not be confused. In diabetic urine specific gravity increased, often it contains glucose, which is absolutely possible with diabetes insipidus. In such patients, the urine density is always lower than normal, and the blood glucose level is almost normal.

    For differential diagnosis is carried out in special hospital samples, particularly restrictive fluid - required during continuous monitoring of patient body weight.

    Modern diagnostic methods allow physicians to easily distinguish from diabetes insipidus.



    Question number 2

    - Please tell us how and what to treat diabetes insipidus. What new effective tools have appeared recently?

    - Treatment prescribed depending on the cause,caused the disease. If this is symptomatic diabetes insipidus caused by a tumor of the hypothalamus, pituitary, first it is necessary to struggle with it: use radiation, chemical treatment or the tumor is removed surgically.

    When the root cause has been anyinflammatory disease of the brain structures primarily Antibiotics and other anti-inflammatory agents. A deficiency of antidiuretic hormone, associated with the violation of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, doctors try to fill with medication containing vasopressin.

    In recent years the arsenal of means of combatingdiabetes insipidus expanded: there were tableted Tegretol, chlorpropamide, clofibrate. Very effective adeuretin, which comes in the form of nasal drops, nasal spray, but.

    Please note: select and prescribe medication must specialist. Treatment of diabetes insipidus - a delicate and long, sometimes you have to be treated systematically lifetime. If carefully and accurately perform the prescribing physician, for many years, and manages to keep good health, and high availability.



    Question number 3

    - Those who are sick with diabetes insipidus, know howit is painful. Personally, I'm afraid the day and night away from the toilet. Because of this, even I had to give up your favorite work. Husband argues that it is necessary to restrain yourself - drink less, and then all is normalized. I tried to keep myself within, but it is unbearable!

    - You can not limit the liquid! For patients with diabetes insipidus is extremely dangerous: there is a danger of dehydration, and sharply deteriorating condition. In addition to weakness, headache, nausea may develop seizures, mental and motor agitation, sharply falling blood pressure, heartbeat quickens ...



    Question number 4

    - Is it necessary to "insipidus" diabetes diet and carefully counting calories?

    - In some special diet is not necessary. Just those with weight below normal, in need of food enriched with proteins, vitamins. The diet should always be meat, fish, dairy products, vegetables, fresh fruits, herbs.

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