- The etiology and pathogenesis of hypoglycemia
- The role of epinephrine in the clinical picture of the disease
- You should know it!
Reduction of blood glucose concentration below the figures3.3 mmol / l - this is a dangerous condition that occurs in case of violation of carbohydrate metabolism and is hypoglycemia. Pathophysiology of the condition, and the feeling in the patient's glucose level below 2.8 mmol / l, the energy associated with cerebral fasting glucose principal consumer.
It is necessary to distinguish between hypoglycemiaphysiological, which occurs in healthy people who are not related to taking medicines, for example, after fasting, and as a consequence of abnormal pituitary or adrenal disease, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.
Hypoglycemia is possible with excess productionhormones, weak splitting of glycogen with glycogen storage disease, liver damage cells in the case of acute or chronic hepatitis, malabsorption of carbohydrates. It is usually inclined hypoglycemia, patients with diabetes, it can be caused by an overdose of drugs that lower blood glucose content. Prolonged fasting condition after surgery on the stomach, the relationship with pathological changes of the pituitary and adrenal glands may also be accompanied by hypoglycemia. Alcoholic hypoglycemia can occur in healthy subjects after receiving a single large amount of alcohol, usually an empty stomach.
A special kind of reactive hypoglycemiaobserved in infants caused by products containing fructose or galactose, as well as in babies born to mothers with diabetes and taking medications that reduce the concentration of sugar in the blood.
The clinical picture of hypoglycemia seenbiochemical and pathophysiological disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. The carbohydrate source - a plant food, and the man to meet the necessities of life must be 400-500 grams per day. Malabsorption may be due to glucose deficiency congenital intestinal mucosal enzyme or pathology transport system providing the exchange and utilization of carbohydrates. Symptoms of this condition are:
- bloating after ingestion of carbohydrates;
- growth retardation;
Description of the symptoms of hypoglycemia, the reasons for itsoccurrence necessarily imply a relationship between sugar and the release of adrenaline from the adrenal glands. It is this substance stimulates the release of glucose from the body's reserves, causing palpitations, tremors, nervousness, anxiety, sweating. Reducing sugar from 3.3 to 2.8 mmol / l provokes energy-hungry cells in the brain that appears memory impairment and concentration, motor coordination, speech, hearing, vision, disorientation in space. Develops a headache and confusion, sometimes changing behavior can be mistaken for alcohol intoxication with the characteristic signs: inability to concentrate, convulsions, visual disturbances, and even coma. Long stay in a coma leads to irreversible changes, and brain damage.
Symptoms of hypoglycemia may start slowlyor vice versa, to develop very rapidly within a few minutes, and manifest a sense of discomfort, light unexplained or severe confusion. In acute overdose of drugs that reduce glucose levels, may occur:
- focal neurological disorders;
- epileptiform seizures;
- loss of consciousness and coma.
Insulin dose of more than 100 units can lead toDeath, however, if the insulin dose is less than 50ED, hypoglycemic who can prevent and help the patient at home. Those who take drugs that reduce blood sugar levels, keep in mind the more intensive insulin therapy, the more there is hypoglycemia.
All patients receiving drugs that reducethe concentration of sugar, should be familiar with the rules of first aid in hypoglycemia, it is desirable that the relatives also possessed these skills, and to have personal use blood glucose meter to monitor blood glucose.