Few people do this survey regularly. And for good reason: even if the vision can only be happy, to measure intraocular pressure, or, scientifically, ophthalmotonus, it is necessary every year, especially after 40 years. It's fast, it is not painful, and most importantly, can get rid of the heaps of problems in the future.
There are several principally different ways to measure IOP. They have different accuracy. Not all are equally accessible. And the main question of the patient - how useful each of them?
Fingers on apples
The easiest way to measure intraocularPressure - palpation, manually. And although it does not get hold of accurate data in mm Hg, doctors often use it for a rough estimation of the state of the eye.
The patient is asked to look down and through the mosteyelids two index fingers alternately pressed against the eyeball, trying to determine how elastic membranes of the eyes in the sclera. The results were evaluated on a scale from +2 to -2 points. This method is good for the evaluation of postoperative eyes and pathological conditions, but is not suitable for fine screening and diagnostic studies.
My feelings. Waiting for that by pressing the sparks will fall from the eyes. No - it was all very gently and carefully.
The simplicity and accuracy
The most common instrument today - a tonometerMaklakov, a metal cylinder of extensions at the ends, like a small dumbbells. At the ends - circular plate diameter of 1 cm, made of milk glass, porcelain or plastic. Before measuring their brown grease with a special paint glycerin.
The patient is laid, buried anestheticseye drops for 1-2 seconds and the tonometer is applied to the cornea. Under its weight flattens the cornea, in the contact zone paint is washed off, and painted plate appears uncolored circle of a certain diameter. It's the measure of special ruler, calculating pressure readings on a specific formula.
The procedure takes 2-3 minutes for each eye. The method is very simple, but it is accurate enough.
The clinics use high-grade tonometerGoldman. It utilizes the principle of inverse Maklakova principle: measuring pressure force of a special prism to the cornea to flatten the diameter pad was equal to 3.06 mm. After anesthesia, the eye instilled fluorescein dye, the patient is seated in a special microscope with the illuminator. The optical lens of the device closer to the cornea of the eye and monitor the process through the eyepiece. Data on the intraocular pressure reading with a special scale. The study lasts about 5 minutes. The accuracy of data obtained in this way is very high.
My feelings. Warnings that after instillation of anesthetic will be felt discomfort - a pleasant lie. Even a slight burning Albucidum much trouble. The paint disappears from the eyes instantly and quite noticeable. Just keep first instinctive blinking impossible.
Electronic blood pressure - the most accurate andinformative. In these pressures are directly marked on the electronic scale. In the eyes buried anesthetic transparent funnel placed between the eyelids, which prevents blinking. At the opening of the funnel on the cornea install light metal Cylinder. He jumps slightly on the cornea, like a ball.
Electronic blood pressure monitors operate in two modes. One - the usual, tonometry, the other - tonography. During the last sensor located on the cornea up to 4 minutes. This study is to evaluate the fluid in the eye movement indicators, which is important for diagnosis of certain diseases.
My feelings. Anesthesia - a great thing: to put a funnel on the eye would be impossible without it. Stay 4 minutes, staring at one point, of course, uncomfortable, but "jumps" of the cylinder are not felt. The only drawback - uncomfortable to realize that the tip is not sterilized. Can be consoled by the fact that the tear quickly wash everything unnecessary from the eye with anesthetic.
Wind in the eyes
The latest achievement - electronic, noncontactsphygmomanometers, or pneumotonometry. They work on the cornea air jet; the whole process takes less than a minute, anesthesia is not required. The patient is seated for a special table, asking to fix the gaze on the target device in the lens and make a special tip. Feeling short stroke of the eye thinnest air jet is almost not felt. The device immediately prints the results.
These blood pressure monitors are now not uncommon, even inpublic clinics. The only negative - the measurement accuracy suffers when approaching the upper and lower limit of normal, and if you have a thin cornea.
My feelings. Have you ever Granny spitting in the eye with the barley? Grandmother is much worse. Installation of the head and the eye sight system is somewhat similar to fit the torso under X-ray machine. Then a light cotton, a breath, involuntary blinking, and - get the result.
Modern electronic blood pressure monitors are portable - for example, in the form of a pen. They are very fast, but only on contact with the eye; anesthetic drops are required.
There are portable blood pressure monitors that measure ophthalmotonus through forever, that is, without touching the cornea of the eyeball. However, the accuracy of these measurements is low.