Trachoma is a serious illness of the organ of vision,caused by special microorganisms - chlamydia, which affects the conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal organs, eyelids. The type (strain) of chlamydia that cause trachoma disease, nowhere else in the human body can exist anywhere except the eyes. In pre-revolutionary Russia, trachoma was widespread and was the main cause of blindness.
Ways of transmission of trachoma
The source of infection is a person with trachoma.
The infection is transmitted with discharge (pus, mucus,lacrimal fluid) of the affected trachoma of the eye. A relatively low resistance of the trachoma pathogen to physical agents has been established. It collapses when heated to 50 degrees for half an hour, drying at a temperature of 32 degrees for half an hour also makes it inactive.
Transmission of infection is possible with contaminated hands, through objects used by the patient (towels, scarves, etc.)
Of particular importance is the use in the family of common potency or common bedding.
Of great importance in the spread of trachoma are flies, which on their legs can carry purulent discharge from the eyes of patients with trachoma to the hands, and through them to the eyes of healthy people.
Trachoma is a kind of “family disease”: others usually become ill when one of the family members becomes infected.
In the infection of trachoma of schoolchildren, the main role is played by the family, schools can be a place of infection extremely rarely. Most often, trachoma infection occurs in childhood.
The manifestation of trachoma
Trachoma begins gradually and imperceptibly. There may be complaints about the feeling of heaviness in the eyelids, feeling of sand in the eyes, eyelids sticking in the morning. Gradually there is a thickening of the conjunctiva, which acquires a cherry tint. Then mucosa appear thicker dense bubbles conjunctival surface becomes uneven. mucosal thickening continues, it sticks out of the optic fissure, recalling "rooster combs." Gradually, the process involves the cornea. It first formed vesicles (follicles), which are then converted into the pit. All the cornea thickens, becomes cloudy. This condition is called corneal pannus trachomatous (curtain). After subacute scarring occurs, which involves not only the surface but also deep eye tissue. Scarring of the cornea and is exposed.
Treatment and prevention of trachoma
For the treatment of trachoma, laying inconjunctival bag of ointments with antibiotics from 3 to 6 times a day for three months, or once a day, a long-acting dibiomycin ointment is laid. Sometimes it is necessary to remove follicles with the help of special tools.
To prevent the spread and repeateddiseases of trachoma, given the data on the pathways of the spread of trachoma, it is necessary to carefully monitor compliance with personal hygiene rules in families where there is a patient with trachoma. Fighting flies is also very important.