If the age you begin to notice that the eyessee no longer as prevalent as before: things have become blurred, straight lines appear wavy, and reading and writing need brighter lighting than before, it is likely that you develop macular degeneration.
It is a violation of the central area of the retina, in which there is progressive loss of vision.
It is believed that the main cause of the disease -the body's natural aging process. Mechanism of development of macular degeneration is started, usually after 60 years. Because of the degenerative disorders in the central part of the retina - the macula (translated from Latin - the "spot"), visual acuity begins to decline.
Usually, a person does not see the moment when theOnset of the disease as it develops gradually. First, he has a sensitivity to light, and then blurred vision, violation of shapes of surrounding objects. Over time, it becomes difficult to read in the center of the visual field appears a spot with a blurred image. In the later stages of the disease the person is no longer distinguish the features of the face of the interlocutor.
All that one sees - it rough contours and contrasts of light conditions, and can later come complete blindness.
Macular degeneration develops due to violationssupply of nerve cells in the macula of the retina (macula) responsible for central vision acuity. The reasons for this may be several: the transferred trauma, infectious and inflammatory diseases of the eye, high myopia. But the main considered sclerosis and arteriosclerotic vascular changes, and poor circulation in the capillaries of the retina. That's why macular degeneration is often called sclerotic and develops in old age.
Particularly susceptible to macular degeneration, women and people with high blood cholesterol.
Scientists came to the conclusion that the development ofmacular degeneration is not the last role is also played by free radicals - highly active harmful molecules. In normal metabolism, they are destroyed as an intermediate product. However, with age the antioxidant activity of the system decreases, and free radicals can damage the sensitive retinal cells, thereby causing blurred vision.
Smoking increases the risk of macular degeneration by 3 times.
Nature has created a self-defense mechanism againstoxidative stress, in which the leading role played by micronutrients. These are special substances that have antioxidant properties and are part of some vegetables and fruits. Such as vitamins C and E, zinc and selenium minerals, carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. Micronutrients have important quality - they are able to neutralize free radicals that destroy the eye. Therefore, elderly patients, in whom the body's defenses are weakened, doctors recommend to eat, as well as tips to make special preparations containing micronutrients, prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration.
Macular degeneration starts because of irregularitiescirculatory vessels in the retina, resulting in a light-sensitive nerve cells are destroyed, and the spot appears in front of the eye. Over time, it becomes more obscure is not central vision. Thus toward macula begin to grow new blood vessels with defective wall resulting vision deteriorates rapidly.
Macular degeneration is of two types - dry andwet. Wet is most dangerous and threatens the complete loss of vision. Her first feature is a direct linear optical distortion: the patient sees them wavy. This effect arises from the fluid that flows from the newly formed blood vessels under the macula. It stratifies and displaces the nerve cells in the macula, which is why the shape of objects is distorted. This vision is reduced very quickly.
Dry macular degeneration, on the contrary, characterized byslow gradual deterioration of vision. It often develops first in only one eye, and it is impossible to predict when the disease will affect the other. The first sign of dry macular degeneration - a slight decrease in vision, which is especially noticeable when reading. For hard work, such as embroidery or sewing, require brighter lighting than before.
Often a person does not notice vision loss, especially if it affected only one eye, and the second is still coping with the petty work.
Dry macular degeneration develops due to violationsMetabolic between the retina and intraocular blood vessels, which leads to the accumulation of metabolic products of cells that are deposited under the retina in the form of microscopic bumps.
When the diagnosis of "macular degeneration" patientYou need to undergo regular eye check-ups to keep the situation under control. This allows you to see the newly formed vessels growing and promptly destroy them with laser surgery.
Unfortunately, this treatment effectivelydisease exists. Perhaps only to suspend and stabilize its development. In the dry form of macular degeneration are very effective medications and dietary supplements, including zinc and antioxidants. As is often the cause of the disease are sclerotic vessels, patients need to continuously monitor the blood pressure, clotting and blood composition. Patients are also advised to wear sunglasses, especially in sunny weather, use tools that enable correct vision.